Apologizing — Cultural note

ប្រពៃណីខ្មែរតម្រូវឲ្យលើកដៃសំពះផងដែរ នៅពេលនិយាយពាក្យសុំទោសគឺដូចគ្នានឹងពេលជម្រាបសួរ” “ជម្រាបលានិងអរគុណដែរប៉ុន្តែ ជាក់ស្ដែង មានតែពេលនិយាយសុំទោសទៅកាន់មនុស្សមានអាយុច្រើនជាងឆ្ងាយ និងមិនសូវជិតស្និទ្ធប៉ុណ្ណោះទេ ដែលគេលើកដៃសំពះចំពោះមនុស្សស្របាលគ្នា មនុស្សជិតស្និទ្ធ ជាទូទៅមិនមានការលើកដៃសំពះទេ

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ប្រពៃណី prɑpeynii tradition, custom
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
តម្រូវឲ្យ tɑmrəv ʔaoy to require
លើក lǝǝk 1. to lift, to raise {លើកដៃសំពះ = to raise the hands in a greeting or respectful gesture} {លើករបស់ = to lift something} {លើកទូរស័ព្ទ = to pick up the phone}
2. time, occasion, session {លើកមុន = last time}
ដៃ day arm, hand
សំពះ sɑmpeah to salute by placing both hands together palm to palm in front of the chest with the fingers pointing upward (it is a gesture of respect when meeting someone or when leaving)
ផងដែរ pʰɑɑŋ dae also, too, as well
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ពេល peel 1. time
2. moment, instant, period of time
និយាយ niʔyiey to speak, say, talk, relate, tell, to narrate, to talk over, discuss
ពាក្យ piek word, term, expression, phrase
សុំទោស som tooh 1. excuse me, pardon me
2. I'm sorry
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
ដូចគ្នា douc knie 1. to be alike, like, just as, like each other, same, the same kind of thing, such as
2. + នឹង: to resemble
3. as a response to a good wish etc.: same to you
នឹង nɨŋ with, by (means of), (attached) to
ជម្រាបសួរ cumriep suǝ 1. hello
2. to say hello
Notes: also written ជំរាបសួរ
ជម្រាបលា cumriep lie 1. goodbye
2. to say goodbye
Notes: also written ជំរាបលា
និង nɨŋ and
អរគុណ ʔɑɑ kun 1. thank you
2. to thank, to be grateful
ដែរ dae 1. also, too, likewise, in the same way
2. indeed, quite, rather
3. marks a polite, gentler, less abrupt statement: all the same, even so, nevertheless
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
ជាក់ស្ដែង ceak sdaeŋ 1. clear, sure
2. clearly, surely, obviously
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
តែ tae 1. but, however
2. only, just
3. tea
ទៅកាន់ tɨv kan to, toward
មនុស្ស mɔnuh, meaʔnuh human being, person
អាយុ ʔaayuʔ 1. to be ... years old
2. age
ច្រើន craən 1. much, many, numerous, very much
2. mostly, often
ជាង cieŋ 1. more than
2. marks the comparative degree of an adjective {ល្អជាង = better}
ឆ្ងាយ cŋaay 1. to be far (away), distant, remote
2. separated
មិនសូវ mɨn səv not so much, rather not
ជិតស្និទ្ធ cɨt snǝt to be close, intimate
ប៉ុណ្ណោះ ponnɑh 1. that much
2. so, like that
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of/to/in/at which/whom
3. the fact/reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever {អត់ដែលដឹងសោះ = I’ve never known this!}
គេ kee 1. he, she
2. one, someone
3. other(s)
ចំពោះ cɑmpʊəh toward, to, about, as for
ស្របាល srɑbaal 1. to be approximately the same, equal
2. at the same time
គ្នា knie 1. together
2. mutually, reciprocally
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
ជាទូទៅ cie tuu təv in general, as a whole, generally
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
ការ kaa 1. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
2. work, occupation
3. business, affair, matter
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)