Boats (Sakanan) — 00 Introduction

សួស្តី នៅក្នុងរូបភាពនេះ គឺយើងនឹងនិយាយអំពីការជិះទូក អញ្ចឹងជាទូទៅមធ្យោបាយនៅក្នុងការធ្វើដំណើរគឺមានបី គឺមាន យើងឃើញការធ្វើដំណើរតាមផ្លូវគោក ដែលយើងមានថ្នល់ មានផ្លូវថ្នល់ មានផ្លូវលំ មានផ្លូវជាតិជាដើម ហើយមួយទៀតផ្លូវគោកដែរ ដែលយើងហៅថាផ្លូវដែក អញ្ចឹងការធ្វើដំណើរតាមផ្លូវដែកគឺយើងជិះរថភ្លើង អញ្ចឹងរថភ្លើងរត់តាមផ្លូវដែក ហើយឡាន ឬក៏រថយន្ត ម៉ូតូ គឺយើងរត់លើផ្លូវថ្នល់ ផ្លូវជាតិ ដែលយើងហៅថាផ្លូវគោក ហើយមធ្យោបាយធ្វើដំណើរមួយប្រភេទទៀត គឺយើងធ្វើដំណើរតាមផ្លូវអាកាស អញ្ចឹងដើម្បីធ្វើដំណើរតាមផ្លូវអាកាស គឺយើងជិះយន្តហោះ ចំណែកឯមធ្យោបាយធ្វើដំណើរមួយវិញទៀតនោះ ដែលយើងតែងតែប្រើប្រាស់ដែរ គឺជាមធ្យោបាយធ្វើដំណើរតាមផ្លូវទឹក អញ្ចឹងដើម្បីធ្វើដំណើរតាមផ្លូវទឹកបាន គឺយើងត្រូវប្រើប្រាស់ទូក ដែលទូកមានដូចជាទូកអុំ ទូកចែវ ឬក៏ទូកម៉ាស៊ីនជាដើម អញ្ចឹងទូកខ្លះធំ ទូកខ្លះតូច ទៅតាមប្រភេទនៃទូកនីមួយៗ ហើយពេលខ្លះយើងចង់ជិះទូកលេងកម្សាន្តតាមទឹក ក៏យើងអាចជិះទូកបានផងដែរ ដោយទូកក៏មានដំណើរកម្សាន្តដែរ ដែលជាក់ស្ដែងនៅក្នុងរូបភាពនេះ គឺជាការជិះទូកកម្សាន្តតាមផ្លូវទឹក នៅលើទឹក អញ្ចឹងយើងអាចជិះទូកកម្សាន្ត នៅមើលនៅលើទេសភាព ជុំវិញមាត់ទឹក ហើយក៏ដូចជាទេសភាព ដែលនៅលើច្រាំងក្បែរទឹកទន្លេផងដែរ

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
សួស្តី suǝsdǝy greeting equivalent to 'hi!' 'hello!' 'good day!'
Notes: ជើង ត
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ក្នុង knoŋ 1. in, inside
2. during + (time word)
រូបភាព ruup pʰiep 1. image, picture, drawing, photo
2. appearance, form, shape
នេះ nih 1. this, these
2. often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something nearby in time or space
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
យើង yəəŋ 1. we
2. I (familiar)
3. in final position used to refer to 'our Cambodian ...' {ទុរេនកំពតយើងមែន? = Kampot durian (from our country, Cambodia), right?}
នឹង nɨŋ future tense marker: will, about to
និយាយ niʔyiey to speak, say, talk, relate, tell, to narrate, to talk over, discuss
អំពី ʔɑmpii 1. about, concerning, relative to
2. from, out of {អំពីថ្ងៃនេះទៅ = from this day on}
ការ kaa 1. work, occupation
2. business, affair, matter
3. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
ជិះ cih to ride (in or on a car, horse, boat, plane, train)
ទូក tuuk boat, sampan, canoe, (especially boats without motors)
អញ្ចឹង ʔɑɲcəŋ 1. in that case, so, then, therefore
2. like this / that
3. this / that much
ជាទូទៅ cie tuu təv in general, as a whole, generally
មធ្យោបាយ matyoubaay means, way, method, strategy, tactic, technique
ធ្វើដំណើរ tvəə dɑmnaə to make a trip, travel
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
បី bəy 1. three
2. to carry lovingly (especially a baby) in the arms
ឃើញ kʰəəɲ 1. to see, to perceive
2. to understand, to recognize
តាម taam 1. to follow, to agree, to go along {ដើរតាមភ្ញៀវគ្រប់ជំហាន = to follow the customer’s every step}
2. according to, in accordance with, following, along, by, through {តាមអាយុ = according to age} {តាមសម្រួល = take it easy/take your time}
3. on, in, along {ជិះម៉ូតូតាមផ្លូវ = to ride a motorbike on the street} {ជិះតាមផ្លូវតូចៗ = to drive on small roads} {នៅតាមខេត្ត = in/throughout the province} {លក់នៅតាមផ្សារ = to sell in the market}
ផ្លូវគោក pləv kook land route(s)
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of / to / in / at which / whom
3. the fact / reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever
ថ្នល់ tnɑl, knɑl raised road or path
ផ្លូវថ្នល់ pləv tnɑl paved road, main road
ផ្លូវលំ pləv lum trail, path, unpaved road
ផ្លូវជាតិ pləv ciet national route
ជាដើម cie daəm as above, as listed (or given) above
ហើយ haǝy 1. indicates completed action or state 'already'
2. and, afterwards, next, then, after that
មួយទៀត muəy tiət one more, once more, moreover, on the other hand, furthermore
ដែរ dae 1. also, too, likewise, in the same way
2. indeed, quite, rather
3. marks a polite, gentler, less abrupt statement: all the same, even so, nevertheless
ហៅ hav 1. to call, name
2. to order (e.g. in a restaurant), specif. to stop a vehicle
3. to send for, summon
4. to invite (guests)
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
ផ្លូវដែក pləv daek railroad
រថភ្លើង rʊət pləəŋ train
រត់ rʊət 1. to run
2. flee, escape, break loose, break out
3. to disappear suddenly
4. to run or function well
ឡាន laan car, motor vehicle
ឬក៏ rɨɨ kɑɑ or (on the other hand)
រថយន្ត rʊət yʊən motor vehicle, automobile, truck
Notes: ជើង ត
ម៉ូតូ moutou motorbike, motorcycle
លើ ləə 1. up, on, over, above
2. to be on, over, above, located on top
3. in regard to, concerning, toward, for, against
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
មួយ muəy 1. one {មួយៗ = one by one}
2. one person/myself {សុំចេញមួយ = Please let me [go] out!} {សុំទៅមួយ = Please give way [for me one person]!} {សុំចុះមួយ = Please let me [one person] get off [the bus]!}
ប្រភេទ prɑpʰeet category, variety, class, kind, type, species, aspect, nature, characteristic
ទៀត tiət 1. again, still, more, further, yet, additional
2. to be different, other
ផ្លូវអាកាស pləv ʔaakaah airway(s)
ដើម្បី daəmbəy in order to, for, to, toward, reserved for
យន្តហោះ yʊən hɑh airplane
ចំណែកឯ cɑmnaek ʔae as for, as to, regarding
មួយវិញទៀត muəy vɨɲ tiət moreover, and another thing, furthermore, in addition, besides
នោះ nuh 1. that, those (often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something distant in time or space)
2. then
តែងតែ taeŋ tae usually, regularly, constantly, always, continually
ប្រើប្រាស់ praə prah to use
គឺជា kɨɨ cie 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
Notes: equivalent to គឺ
ផ្លូវទឹក pləv tɨk waterway(s)
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
ត្រូវ trəv 1. must, have to
2. to be correct, right, proper, exact, accurate
3. to concern, have to do with, to agree/jibe with, coincide with
4. to be affected with/by, to suffer, undergo (ត្រូវ + CLAUSE marks a passive-like construction in which the subject of the clause introduced by ត្រូវ is translated as the agent in the passive construction)
ដូចជា douc cie such as, like, as though, to seem as though, for instance
ទូកអុំ tuuk ʔom canoe
ទូកចែវ tuuk caev rowing boat
ទូកម៉ាស៊ីន tuuk maasɨn motorboat
ខ្លះ klah some (serves as a plural marker with ណា​​ and អ្វី)
ធំ tʰom to be big, tall, vast, important
Notes: irregular pronunciation
តូច touc, tuuc 1. small, little, tiny
2. minor
ទៅតាម tɨv taam 1. by, according to, through {គេគិតតម្លៃទៅតាមគីឡូ = they’re charging by the kilo}
2. to pursue, go after, go along with
3. to send for
4. to retrieve
នៃ ney 1. of, belonging to (more literary and formal than របស់)
2. links verb and its object
នីមួយៗ niimuəy niimuəy each, each one, every one, various, all
ពេលខ្លះ peel klah sometimes
ចង់ cɑŋ 1. to want, wish, desire
2. to need
លេង leeŋ 1. to play
2. to do something for fun or pleasure
3. to joke
កម្សាន្ត kɑmsaan to relax, rest, to enjoy oneself {ទូកកម្សាន្ត = tourist boat}
Notes: ជើង ត; alternative spelling: កំសាន្ត; root: ក្សាន្ត
ទឹក tɨk 1. water, juice, liquid
2. round (e.g., of a boxing match)
ក៏ kɑɑ marker of sequential or consecutive action: also, so, then, therefore, accordingly
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
ផងដែរ pʰɑɑŋ dae also, too, as well
ដោយ daoy 1. by, with, along
2. (indicator of an adverb) in a ... manner
3. because
ដំណើរ dɑmnaə 1. walking, traveling
2. travel, journey, trip
3. functioning
4. movement, progress, development
5. process, course or sequence (of events)
ជាក់ស្ដែង ceak sdaeŋ 1. clear, sure
2. clearly, surely, obviously
មើល məəl 1. to look at, to watch, to watch for, to observe
2. particle: come on, give it a try
3. let me see!
4. phrase-final: softens a command or request {ជួយបង្ហាញតិចមើល = Please show me!}
ទេសភាព teehsaʔpʰiep landscape, view, scenery
ជុំវិញ cum vɨɲ 1. around, surrounding, on all sides
2. about, concerning
មាត់ទឹក moat tɨk edge of a body of water
ច្រាំង craŋ bank, shore, beach (of a river, creek)
ក្បែរ kbae to be near, close to
ទឹកទន្លេ tɨk tʊənlee river (larger than ស្ទឹង)