Saying “I don’t understand” — Cultural note


ជាទូទៅ ការសួរបញ្ជាក់ក្រោយការពន្យល់អ្វីមួយថាតើអ្នកយល់ទេ?” មិនមែនជាការគួរសមប៉ុន្មានទេការគួរសមបំផុត គឺ ក្រោយពេលពន្យល់អ្វីមួយ គួរនៅស្ងៀម និងញញឹមទៅកាន់ដៃគូសន្ទនាពិតប្រាកដណាស់ ការធ្វើបែបនេះ យើងមិនដឹងប្រាកដថា ដៃគូសន្ទនាពិតជាយល់អ្វីដែលយើងបាននិយាយ ពន្យល់នោះឡើយផ្ទុយទៅវិញ ក្នុងករណីដែលមានអ្នកសុំការពន្យល់ (= ចង់ឲ្យយើងពន្យល់) ដូចជាពន្យល់មេរៀន របៀបប្រើអ្វីមួយ ការសួរបញ្ជាក់ច្រើនដងដូចជាត្រង់ហ្នឹង/កន្លែងហ្នឹង យល់អត់?” ជាការធម្មតា

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
ជាទូទៅ cie tuu təv in general, as a whole, generally
ការ kaa 1. work, occupation
2. business, affair, matter
3. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
សួរ suə 1. to ask, question, enquire
2. to visit, come to see
បញ្ជាក់ bɑɲceak 1. to confirm, verify, certify, to clarify, explain
2. to indicate
3. to prove, to show
4. to determine
5. to announce, declare, claim
6. to order
7. to conform to
ក្រោយ kraoy 1. behind, after
2. next
ពន្យល់ pʊənyʊəl to explain, show, demonstrate
អ្វីមួយ ʔvǝymuǝy 1. what?
2. any, some, a certain one
3. anything, nothing, something
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
តើ taə 1. indicating an indirect question, it may often be translated as 'if' or 'whether'
2. phrase-final: used for emphasis
អ្នក neak 1. you (to equals of both sexes)
2. person, one who... (used as an agentive particle to create nouns from predicatives)
យល់ yʊəl 1. to understand, comprehend
2. to learn
3. to see, perceive
4. recognize, know
5. to favor, be partial to
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
មិនមែន mɨn mɛɛn no, not, is not
ជា cie 1. to be (equal to), to be as
2. to be well, in good health, recovered
3. to be effective (of medicines)
គួរសម kuə sɑɑm 1. polite, acceptable, appropriate
2. reasonable, moderate {មានច្រើនគួរសមដែរ = it has a reasonably/relatively many}
ប៉ុន្មាន ponmaan 1. how much, how many
2. (in an affirmative context) some, several, a few, a certain number
3. (in a negative or indefinite context) (not) many, to any (great) extent
បំផុត bɑmpʰot 1. to be the most..., the very..., extreme, extraordinary
2. to terminate, to end, to finish, to conclude
3. final, last
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
ក្រោយពេល kraoy peel after (the time when)
គួរ kuə 1. should, ought to
2. to be worthy of (often marks phrases equivalent to Eng. adjectives in -able / -ible)
3. to be correct, proper, suitable, fitting
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ស្ងៀម sŋiǝm 1. to be silent, quiet
2. still, immobile, inactive
3. to be idle, free, unemployed
និង nɨŋ and
ញញឹម ɲɔɲɨm to smile
ទៅកាន់ tɨv kan to, toward
ដៃគូសន្ទនា day kuu sɑnteaʔnie conversation partner
ពិតប្រាកដ pɨt praakɑɑt true, exact, sure
ណាស់ nah very, very much
ធ្វើ tvəə to do, to make, to work, to prepare, to cultivate (a field)
បែប baep kind, sort, model, type, style, form, shape, method, way
នេះ nih 1. this, these
2. often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something nearby in time or space
យើង yəəŋ 1. we
2. I (familiar)
3. in final position used to refer to 'our Cambodian ...' {ទុរេនកំពតយើងមែន? = Kampot durian (from our country, Cambodia), right?}
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
ដឹង dəŋ 1. to know, to be aware of, to be familiar with
2. [colloquial] can be used in the affirmative or, as an answer to a question, to mean ‘no’ {ដឹងហើយ = ok!} {ឯងដឹងថាគាត់ទៅណាអត់? ដឹង! = Do you know where he went to? No, I don’t.}
ប្រាកដ prakɑt 1. clearly, certainly, without fail, precisely
2. certain, true, exact
3. famous, celebrated
ពិតជា pɨt cie 1. certainly, surely
2. will certainly, will surely
អ្វី ʔvəy 1. what?
2. anything, something, nothing
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of / to / in / at which / whom
3. the fact / reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
និយាយ niʔyiey to speak, say, talk, relate, tell, to narrate, to talk over, discuss
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
នោះ nuh 1. that, those (often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something distant in time or space)
2. then
ឡើយ laəy 1. at all, absolutely
2. generally used with the negative particles កុំ, គ្មាន, ពុំ, មិន, ឥត, to express the idea of incompleted action, existence or progressing action
ផ្ទុយទៅវិញ ptuy tɨv vɨɲ on the contrary
ក្នុង knoŋ 1. in, inside
2. during + (time word)
ករណី kaʔraʔnəy case, cause, instance, matter, story
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
សុំ som to ask (for), to beg, to demand (may be used in a polite way by older persons to younger ones)
ចង់ cɑŋ 1. to want, wish, desire
2. to need
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
ដូចជា douc cie such as, like, as though, to seem as though, for instance
មេរៀន mee riən lesson
របៀប rɔbiəp 1. method, system, order, arrangement, organization
2. style, way
3. rules
ប្រើ praə to use
ច្រើន craən 1. much, many, numerous, very much
2. mostly, often
ដង dɑɑŋ time, occurrence, occasion
ត្រង់ trɑŋ 1. straight, directly
2. exactly in (some spot)
3. upright, vertical
4. frank, honest, fair
ហ្នឹង nɨŋ this, that, right here, right now (colloquial form of នេះ = this, that)
កន្លែង kɑnlaeŋ 1. place, location, region
2. clf. for locations
អត់ ʔɑt 1. no, not
2. to be without, lacking
3. to restrain oneself, abstain from
4. particle to form yes/no questions
ធម្មតា tʰoam meaʔ taa 1. to be natural, habitual, usual, ordinary
2. usually, ordinarily