Requesting and granting permission 2 — Cultural note


ការទិញអីវ៉ាន់នៅខ្មែររៀងពិបាកបន្តិច ព្រោះអ្នកលក់មិនសូវចង់ឲ្យភ្ញៀវប៉ះពាល់ សាកល្បងទំនិញរបស់គេច្រើនទេមុននឹងទិញបើភ្ញៀវទិញទំនិញនោះក្រោយពេលប៉ះពាល់ នោះមិនអីទេ ប៉ុន្តែបើមិនទិញវិញ នោះអ្នកលក់អាចនឹងសម្ដែងទឹកមុខមិនពេញចិត្តទំនិញដូចជាខោអាវដែលលក់នៅតាមផ្សារ សឹងតែ ៥០ ភាគរយគឺមិនបានបិទផ្លាកតម្លៃនោះទេ ហើយបើគ្រាន់តែសួរតម្លៃទំនិញហើយដើរចេញ នោះកាន់តែធ្វើឲ្យអ្នកលក់មិនពេញចិត្ត

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
ការ kaa 1. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
2. work, occupation
3. business, affair, matter
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
ទិញ tɨɲ to buy
អីវ៉ាន់ ʔəyvan objects, things, merchandise, goods, baggage
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
រៀង riəŋ 1. រៀង + adj. + បន្តិច/តិច = a bit + adj. {រៀងពិបាកបន្តិច = a bit difficult} {រៀងប្រៃបន្តិច = a bit salty}
2. to arrange in series, ranks, rows, order or style
3. in sequence, in order, in rows
4. all, each, every
ពិបាក piʔbaak 1. difficult {ការទិញអីវ៉ាន់នៅខ្មែររៀងពិបាកបន្តិច = buying things in Cambodia is a bit difficult/not easy} {តែពិបាកត្រង់ ឆាប់ងងុយដេក = the problem is: I’m getting tired easily}
2. sad, poor, miserable
3. to suffer
បន្តិច bɑntəc 1. a little, a little bit, in small amounts, few
2. rather, slightly, just barely
3. in a little while
Notes: ជើង ត
ព្រោះ prʊəh because (of), since
អ្នកលក់ neak lʊək seller
មិនសូវ mɨn səv not so much, rather not
ចង់ cɑŋ 1. to want, wish, desire
2. to need
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
ភ្ញៀវ pɲiəv 1. guest, visitor
2. client, customer
ប៉ះពាល់ pah poal 1. to touch
2. to affect, have an effect on
3. to violate, infringe on
4. to collide with
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
lɔɔ 1. to try, sample
2. to try on
3. to test, measure, probe, experiment
សាកល្បង saak lbɑɑŋ to test, try, sample, experiment
ទំនិញ tumnɨɲ goods, merchandise
របស់ rɔbɑh 1. object, thing, belonging, property
2. of, belonging to
គេ kee 1. he, she
2. one, someone
3. other(s)
ច្រើន craən 1. much, many, numerous, very much
2. mostly, often
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
មុននឹង mun nɨŋ before (doing something)
បើ baə 1. if, may be
2. although
នោះ nuh 1. that, those (often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something distant in time or space)
2. then
ក្រោយពេល kraoy peel after (the time when)
មិនអីទេ mɨn ʔəy tee 1. it doesn't matter, it's all right
2. surely, certainly
Notes: see also អត់អីទេ
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
វិញ vɨɲ again, back, instead
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
នឹង nɨŋ future tense marker: will, about to
សម្ដែង sɑmdaəŋ 1. to express (an idea)
2. to show, display, demonstrate
3. to come into view
4. to act, perform, portray on the stage
5. to declare, proclaim
6. to publish, promulgate
Notes: root: ស្តែង; ជើង ដ; also written សំដែង
ទឹកមុខ tɨk muk facial expression, mood
ពេញចិត្ត pɨɲ cət to be pleased, satisfied, content
Notes: ជើង ត
ដូចជា douc cie such as, like, as though, to seem as though, for instance
ខោអាវ kʰao ʔaav clothes, clothing
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of/to/in/at which/whom
3. the fact/reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever {អត់ដែលដឹងសោះ = I’ve never known this!}
លក់ lʊək 1. to sell
2. asleep {ដេកលក់ = to be sound asleep, to sleep deeply} {ដេកមិនលក់ = to not be able to fall asleep, to have insomnia}
តាម taam 1. to follow, to agree, to go along {ដើរតាមភ្ញៀវគ្រប់ជំហាន = to follow the customer’s every step}
2. according to, in accordance with, following, along, by, through {តាមអាយុ = according to age} {តាមសម្រួល = take it easy/take your time}
3. on, in, along {ជិះម៉ូតូតាមផ្លូវ = to ride a motorbike on the street} {ជិះតាមផ្លូវតូចៗ = to drive on small roads} {នៅតាមខេត្ត = in/throughout the province} {លក់នៅតាមផ្សារ = to sell in the market}
ផ្សារ psaa market, bazaar, fair
សឹងតែ sǝŋ tae almost, about to
ភាគរយ pʰiek rɔɔy percent
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
បិទ bət 1. to shut, close (e.g., a door, a meeting), to turn off (e.g., an electrical switch), to cease (working), to block (e.g., a road)
2. to cover, seal, to attach (to), fasten (on), to place close to, to apply over, smear on, to glue, paste
ផ្លាកតម្លៃ plaak tɑmlay price tag
ហើយ haǝy 1. indicates completed action or state 'already'
2. and, afterwards, next, then, after that
គ្រាន់តែ kroan tae just, only, only just
សួរ suə 1. to ask, question, enquire
2. to visit, come to see
តម្លៃ tɑmlay 1. price
2. value
ដើរ daə 1. to walk, to go, to move
2. (of machines) to run
ចេញ cəɲ 1. to go out, leave, emerge, exit
2. to issue, bring out, come out (of a publication)
3. to emit, utter
4. out, off, away (also figuratively) {ខ្ញុំគិតអត់ចេញ = I can't figure it out}
5. to pay out, pay for, lay out (money), spend
6. to gain, earn, save
7. to play (a card)
កាន់តែ kan tae more and more, further, becoming more and more, increasingly, continually
ធ្វើឲ្យ tvəə ʔaoy 1. to cause, make (someone) do (something)
2. to do (something) for (someone) (often used to form causative compounds)