Requesting and granting permission 1 — Cultural note


នៅប្រទេសខ្មែរ វាមានលក្ខណៈងាយស្រួលជាងនៅប្រទេសជប៉ុន នៅពេលចង់និយាយទៅកាន់អ្នកដែលមិនស្គាល់គ្នា ដើម្បីសុំការអនុញ្ញាតសួរអ្វីមួយនៅប្រទេសជប៉ុន មានទម្លាប់រអែងមិនហ៊ានហៅនិយាយទៅកាន់អ្នកមិនស្គាល់នោះទេនៅខ្មែរ សូមកុំភ្ញាក់ផ្អើលនៅពេលមានអ្នកមិនស្គាល់និយាយមកកាន់អ្នកច្រើន ប៉ុន្តែក៏សុំប្រយ័ត្នចំពោះជនគួរឲ្យសង្ស័យខ្លះ

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ប្រទេស prɑteeh country, nation
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
វា vie 1. it (of animals, things, or very young children)
2. he, she, they (familiar or contemptuous)
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
លក្ខណៈ leakkʰaʔnaʔ 1. attribute, (physical) characteristic, distinctive feature
2. character, nature, quality
3. appearance, shape, form
4. condition, criterion, qualification
5. meaning
6. section (of a law text)
ងាយស្រួល ŋiey sruǝl easy (e.g., to do, to use)
ជាង cieŋ 1. more than
2. marks the comparative degree of an adjective {ល្អជាង = better}
ʔae 1. at, to, in, on
2. as (for), regarding
Notes: independent vowel representing the Sanskrit and Pali vowel ē ʔae (many words spelled with ឯ may also be spelled with អែ)
ជប៉ុន ceaʔpon 1. Japan
2. Japanese
ពេល peel 1. time
2. moment, instant, period of time
ចង់ cɑŋ 1. to want, wish, desire
2. to need
និយាយ niʔyiey to speak, say, talk, relate, tell, to narrate, to talk over, discuss
ទៅកាន់ tɨv kan to, toward
អ្នក neak 1. you (to equals of both sexes)
2. person, one who... (used as an agentive particle to create nouns from predicatives)
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of/to/in/at which/whom
3. the fact/reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever {អត់ដែលដឹងសោះ = I’ve never known this!}
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
ស្គាល់គ្នា skoal knie to know each other
ដើម្បី daəmbəy in order to, for, to, toward, reserved for
សុំ som to ask (for), to beg, to demand (may be used in a polite way by older persons to younger ones)
ការ kaa 1. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
2. work, occupation
3. business, affair, matter
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
អនុញ្ញាត ʔaʔnuɲɲaat 1. to allow, authorize, to permit
2. authorization, permission
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
សួរ suə 1. to ask, question, enquire
2. to visit, come to see
អ្វីមួយ ʔvǝymuǝy 1. what?
2. any, some, a certain one
3. anything, nothing, something
ទម្លាប់ tumloap 1. habit, custom
2. to make a habit of, to be accustomed to
រអែង rɔʔaeŋ to fear (out of respect), to dread
ហ៊ាន hien 1. bold, courageous
2. to dare, risk
ហៅ hav 1. to call, name
2. to order (e.g. in a restaurant), specif. to stop a vehicle
3. to send for, summon
4. to invite (guests)
ស្គាល់ skoal 1. to know (someone), recognize, have seen before
2. to be familiar with
នោះ nuh 1. that, those (often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something distant in time or space)
2. then
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
សូម soum 1. to request, ask for
2. to beg, entreat
3. polite term used to introduce a sentence, meaning 'please, would you...', 'would you please'
កុំ kom do not ...
ភ្ញាក់ផ្អើល pɲeak pʔaəl 1. to be startled, surprised, excited, alarmed
2. to panic
មកកាន់ mɔɔk kan to, toward (in the direction of the speaker)
ច្រើន craən 1. much, many, numerous, very much
2. mostly, often
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
ក៏ kɑɑ marker of sequential or consecutive action: also, so, then, therefore, accordingly
ប្រយ័ត្ន prɑyat careful, to take care
ចំពោះ cɑmpʊəh toward, to, about, as for
ជន cʊən people, person, human being
គួរឲ្យ kuə ʔaoy 1. worthy of, ...-able
2. one should
សង្ស័យ sɑŋsay 1. to suspect, doubt, wonder about
2. to be suspicious, skeptical
3. doubt
ខ្លះ klah some (serves as a plural marker with ណា​​ and អ្វី)