Offering food or drinks and declining such an offer — Cultural note


ពាក្យថាហៅគួរសមជាពាក្យដែលខ្មែរចូលចិត្តប្រើក្នុងន័យលេងសើចវាមានន័យថា ការហៅនរណាម្នាក់មកញ៉ាំអ្វីមួយ គឺមិនមែនចង់ឲ្យម្នាក់នោះមកពិតប្រាកដនោះទេ គឺគ្រាន់តែជាការសម្ដែងការគួរសមតែប៉ុណ្ណោះ ព្រោះការដែលឃើញនរណាម្នាក់ពេលខ្លួនកំពុងញ៉ាំអ្វីមួយ គឺគួរតែបបួលគេមកញ៉ាំជាមួយជាការគួរសម ទោះជាដឹងថាអាហារមានតិច មិនអាចចែករំលែកឲ្យគេបានក៏ដោយ

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
ពាក្យ piek word, term, expression, phrase
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
ហៅ hav 1. to call, name
2. to order (e.g. in a restaurant), specif. to stop a vehicle
3. to send for, summon
4. to invite (guests)
គួរសម kuə sɑɑm 1. polite, acceptable, appropriate
2. reasonable, moderate {មានច្រើនគួរសមដែរ = it has a reasonably/relatively many}
ជា cie 1. to be (equal to), to be as
2. to be well, in good health, recovered
3. to be effective (of medicines)
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of / to / in / at which / whom
3. the fact / reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
ចូលចិត្ត cool cət to like, to prefer
Notes: ជើង ត
ប្រើ praə to use
ក្នុង knoŋ 1. in, inside
2. during + (time word)
ន័យ ney meaning
លេងសើច leeŋ saǝc to tease, play, do something for fun, fool around, amuse oneself
វា vie 1. it (of animals, things, or very young children)
2. he, she, they (familiar or contemptuous)
មានន័យ mien ney to mean
ការ kaa 1. work, occupation
2. business, affair, matter
3. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
នរណាម្នាក់ nɔɔnaa mneak somebody, anybody
មក mɔɔk 1. to come (toward the speaker in space or time)
2. often used as a particle indicating that the action began at some point in the past and continued up to the present
ញ៉ាំ ɲam to eat, to drink, to consume
Notes: informal, of oneself, addressing children or close friends but not elders
អ្វីមួយ ʔvǝymuǝy 1. what?
2. any, some, a certain one
3. anything, nothing, something
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
មិនមែន mɨn mɛɛn no, not, is not
ចង់ cɑŋ 1. to want, wish, desire
2. to need
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
ម្នាក់ mneak 1. one person (contraction of មួយនាក់)
2. alone
នោះ nuh 1. that, those (often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something distant in time or space)
2. then
ពិតប្រាកដ pɨt praakɑɑt true, exact, sure
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
គ្រាន់តែ kroan tae just, only, only just
សម្ដែង sɑmdaəŋ 1. to express (an idea)
2. to show, display, demonstrate
3. to come into view
4. to act, perform, portray on the stage
5. to declare, proclaim
6. to publish, promulgate
Notes: root: ស្តែង; ជើង ដ; also written សំដែង
តែប៉ុណ្ណោះ tae ponnɑh only, only that much
ព្រោះ prʊəh because (of), since
ឃើញ kʰəəɲ 1. to see, to perceive
2. to understand, to recognize
ពេល peel 1. time
2. moment, instant, period of time
ខ្លួន kluən 1. body, figure, person, self
2. reflexive pronoun: myself, yourself, himself etc.
កំពុង kɑmpuŋ to be in the process of (doing something)
គួរតែ kuə tae ought to, should, it's right to
បបួល bɑbuəl 1. to invite/appeal/persuade to
2. to ask
3. to arrange (with)
គេ kee 1. he, she
2. one, someone
3. other(s)
ជាមួយ cie muəy with
ទោះជា tʊəh cie even though, although
ដឹង dəŋ 1. to know, to be aware of, to be familiar with
2. [colloquial] can be used in the affirmative or, as an answer to a question, to mean ‘no’ {ដឹងហើយ = ok!} {ឯងដឹងថាគាត់ទៅណាអត់? ដឹង! = Do you know where he went to? No, I don’t.}
អាហារ ʔaahaa food, meal
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
តិច təc 1. to be few (in number), small (in size or extent), less
2. a little bit, somewhat
3. phrase-final: makes a request more polite {ចង់ពឹងឲ្យជួយលើកអីវ៉ាន់តិច = Can you please help me carrying these things?} {ខ្ញុំសុំលអាវនេះតិចបានអេ៎? = Can I try on this shirt here, please?}
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
ចែករំលែក caek rumlɛɛk to divide, share, apportion
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
ក៏ដោយ kɑɑ daoy 1. (who)soever, (what)soever
2. whether or not, it makes no difference, even if
3. even though, although