Inviting someone to eat together — Cultural note


នៅពេលកំពុងញ៉ាំអាហារ ហើយក្រឡេកឃើញអ្នកស្គាល់គ្នា ជនជាតិខ្មែរតែងតែបបួលអ្នកនោះ ឲ្យមកញ៉ាំដែរជាការគួរសម ដោយនិយាយថាញ៉ាំ ... ឈ្មោះ/បង/អូន/លោកពូ!” ឧទាហរណ៍
ញ៉ាំបាយ បង!
ញ៉ាំនំ អូន!
ពិសាបាយ លោកពូ!
អ្នកដែលត្រូវបានគេហៅអាចបដិសេធដោយនិយាយថាអត់អីទេ ញ៉ាំចុះក៏បាន ឬក៏ទទួលយកចំណីបន្តិចបន្តួចក៏បាន

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ពេល peel 1. time
2. moment, instant, period of time
កំពុង kɑmpuŋ to be in the process of (doing something)
ញ៉ាំ ɲam to eat, to drink, to consume
Notes: informal, of oneself, addressing children or close friends but not elders
អាហារ ʔaahaa food, meal
ហើយ haǝy 1. indicates completed action or state 'already'
2. and, afterwards, next, then, after that
ក្រឡេក krɑlejk 1. to glance
2. to look at sideways
3. to tickle
ឃើញ kʰəəɲ 1. to see, to perceive
2. to understand, to recognize
អ្នក neak 1. you (to equals of both sexes)
2. person, one who... (used as an agentive particle to create nouns from predicatives)
ស្គាល់គ្នា skoal knie to know each other
ជនជាតិ cɔɔn ciet 1. citizen, people {ជនជាតិខ្មែរ = Khmer people}
2. nationality
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
តែងតែ taeŋ tae usually, regularly, constantly, always, continually
បបួល bɑbuəl 1. to invite/appeal/persuade to
2. to ask
3. to arrange (with)
នោះ nuh 1. that, those (often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something distant in time or space)
2. then
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
មក mɔɔk 1. to come (toward the speaker in space or time)
2. to come to/towards (often used as a final particle indicating that the action began at some point in the past and continued up to the present)
3. (from then) on, (from that time) forth
4. to, toward
ដែរ dae 1. also, too, likewise, in the same way
2. indeed, quite, rather
3. marks a polite, gentler, less abrupt statement: all the same, even so, nevertheless
ជា cie 1. to be (equal to), to be as
2. to be well, in good health, recovered
3. to be effective (of medicines)
ការ kaa 1. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
2. work, occupation
3. business, affair, matter
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
គួរសម kuə sɑɑm 1. polite, acceptable, appropriate
2. reasonable, moderate {មានច្រើនគួរសមដែរ = it has a reasonably/relatively many}
ដោយ daoy 1. by, with, along
2. (indicator of an adverb) in a ... manner
3. because
និយាយ niʔyiey to speak, say, talk, relate, tell, to narrate, to talk over, discuss
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
ឈ្មោះ cmʊəh 1. name
2. to be named/called
បង bɑɑŋ 1. elder sibling
2. you (addressing an acquaintance, friend, elder sibling, or husband), or I (if elder than the addressee)
3. you (politely addressing a stranger who's not too much younger than oneself)
អូន ʔoun 1. I (younger brother, younger sister, sweetheart or wife - about themselves)
2. you (intimate or familiar address form for younger sibling, for one's wife or girl friend, or for a close friend who is younger)
3. you (politely addressing a stranger who's younger than oneself)
លោក look 1. you (used in addressing adult males who are of approximately equal rank with the speaker and Buddhist monks)
2. he (used in referring to adult males who are of approximately equal rank with the speaker and Buddhist monks)
3. monk, man (who is respected)
4. sir, mister (commonly used before a title or given name)
5. world, sphere of existence
6. universe
ពូ puu 1. uncle (younger brother of either parent)
2. respectful term of address to older men
ឧទាហរណ៍ ʔuʔtiehɑɑ 1. example
2. for example
ញ៉ាំបាយ ɲam baay general term for 'to eat' (neutral form for younger persons and persons of the same age)
នំ num cake, cooky, pastry, sweet, generic term for sweet pastries
ពិសា piʔsaa, piisaa to eat, to consume
Notes: polite form used when speaking to older persons
បាយ baay 1. cooked rice
2. food, meal
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of/to/in/at which/whom
3. the fact/reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever {អត់ដែលដឹងសោះ = I’ve never known this!}
ត្រូវ trəv 1. must, have to
2. to be correct, right, proper, exact, accurate
3. to concern, have to do with, to agree/jibe with, coincide with
4. to be affected with/by, to suffer, undergo (ត្រូវ + CLAUSE marks a passive-like construction in which the subject of the clause introduced by ត្រូវ is translated as the agent in the passive construction)
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
គេ kee 1. he, she
2. one, someone
3. other(s)
ហៅ hav 1. to call, name
2. to order (e.g. in a restaurant), specif. to stop a vehicle
3. to send for, summon
4. to invite (guests)
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
បដិសេធ paʔdeʔsaet 1. to deny
2. to reject, to refuse
3. to cancel, to abolish, to eliminate
អត់អីទេ ʔɑt ʔəy tee 1. it doesn't matter, it's all right
2. surely, certainly
Notes: see also មិនអីទេ
ចុះ coh phrase-final particle: mild imperative indicating permission {ញ៉ាំចុះ = Go ahead and eat!}
ក៏ kɑɑ marker of sequential or consecutive action: also, so, then, therefore, accordingly
ឬក៏ rɨɨ kɑɑ or (on the other hand)
ទទួលយក tɔtuəl yɔɔk 1. to accept
2. to take, to receive
ចំណី cɑmnəy 1. snack
2. dessert
3. fodder, (animal) feed
បន្តិចបន្តួច bɑntəc bɑntuəc 1. a little, a few
2. to a small extent, just barely, somewhat
Notes: ជើង ត (both times)