Introducing someone else to others — Cultural note


ការសំពះជាប្រពៃណីរបស់ជនជាតិខ្មែរខ្មែរមានរបៀបសំពះចំនួន ៥។
សំពះទីគឺសំពះរវាងមិត្តភក្តិ សំពះទៅកាន់មនុស្សមានអាយុឋានៈតូចជាង ត្រូវដាក់ដៃផ្គុំត្រឹមទ្រូង
សំពះទីគឺសំពះទៅកាន់មនុស្សដែលមានអាយុឋានៈខ្ពស់ជាង ត្រូវដាក់ដៃផ្គុំត្រឹមចង្កា
សំពះទីគឺសំពះទៅកាន់ឪពុកម្ដាយ ជីដូនជីតា គ្រូបង្រៀន ត្រូវដាក់ដៃផ្គុំត្រឹមច្រមុះ
សំពះទីគឺសំពះទៅកាន់ព្រះមហាក្សត្រព្រះសង្ឃ ត្រូវដាក់ដៃផ្គុំត្រឹមប្រជុំចិញ្ចើម
សំពះទីគឺសំពះទៅកាន់ព្រះវត្ថុស័ក្ដិសិទ្ធិ ត្រូវដាក់ដៃផ្គុំត្រឹមថ្ងាស

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
ការ kaa 1. work, occupation
2. business, affair, matter
3. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
សំពះ sɑmpeah to salute by placing both hands together palm to palm in front of the chest with the fingers pointing upward (it is a gesture of respect when meeting someone or when leaving)
ជា cie 1. to be (equal to), to be as
2. to be well, in good health, recovered
3. to be effective (of medicines)
ប្រពៃណី prɑpeynii tradition, custom
របស់ rɔbɑh 1. object, thing, belonging, property
2. of, belonging to
ជនជាតិ cɔɔn ciet 1. citizen, people {ជនជាតិខ្មែរ = Khmer people}
2. nationality
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
របៀប rɔbiəp 1. method, system, order, arrangement, organization
2. style, way
3. rules
ចំនួន cɑmnuən amount, number, quantity
ទី tii 1. particle used to form ordinal numbers
2. spot, place, location
3. rank, function, service
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
រវាង rɔvieŋ 1. between
2. during
មិត្តភក្តិ mɨt pʰeaʔ friend
Notes: ជើង ត (twice)
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
ទៅកាន់ tɨv kan to, toward
មនុស្ស mɔnuh, meaʔnuh human being, person
អាយុ ʔaayuʔ 1. to be ... years old
2. age
ឋានៈ tʰaanaʔ 1. grade, level, position, standing, status
2. duty
3. reason, motive, cause
តូច touc, tuuc 1. small, little, tiny
2. minor
ជាង cieŋ 1. more than
2. marks the comparative degree of an adjective {ល្អជាង = better}
ត្រូវ trəv 1. must, have to
2. to be correct, right, proper, exact, accurate
3. to concern, have to do with, to agree/jibe with, coincide with
4. to be affected with/by, to suffer, undergo (ត្រូវ + CLAUSE marks a passive-like construction in which the subject of the clause introduced by ត្រូវ is translated as the agent in the passive construction)
ដាក់ dak 1. to put, place
2. to deposit
3. to add (ingredients)
4. to set (e.g., a trap)
5. to establish
6. to assign
7. to locate, settle, station
8. to lock up
9. to fasten
10. to use
11. to strike, hit hard
12. to affect
13. to subject someone to
14. to be hard hit, suffer a setback
15. to have bad luck, cause bad luck
16. to feel unwell, have an upset stomach (especially after eating certain fruits)
17. to contract for
18. to subscribe to
19. to renounce (a throne)
20. to put aside (religious vows)
21. in, into, on
22. to eat, drink
23. to kneel
24. command to an elephant to kneel by bending the rear legs
ដៃ day arm, hand
ផ្គុំ pkum 1. to group, assemble, bind/join together, connect, unite
2. to make up, comprise
ត្រឹម trəm 1. (precisely) at
2. up to, as far as
3. to be exact, accurate, precise, clear-cut
4. to be honest
5. to be true, correct, to be proper
6. accurately, precisely
ទ្រូង truuŋ 1. chest (of the body)
2. center, middle
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of / to / in / at which / whom
3. the fact / reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever
ខ្ពស់ kpʊəh high, tall
ចង្កា cɑŋkaa chin
ឪពុកម្ដាយ ʔǝv puk mdaay 1. parents
2. father and mother
ជីដូនជីតា cii doon cii taa 1. grandparents
2. ancestors
គ្រូបង្រៀន kruu bɑŋriən teacher, instructor (in a school)
ច្រមុះ crɑmoh nose, snout
ព្រះមហាក្សត្រ preah mɔhaaksat king
ព្រះសង្ឃ preah sɑŋ 1. Buddhist monk
2. priest
ប្រជុំ prɑcum 1. to have a meeting
2. to gather, collect, assemble, unite, meet together
3. to flow together, join
4. meeting, gathering
ចិញ្ចើម cəɲcaəm 1. eyebrow
2. edge, border
3. curb, sidewalk, roadside
ព្រះ preah 1. Buddha, God, holy being
2. to be holy, sacred, divine
3. excellent, distinguished, superior (commonly used as a prefix before nominals referring to members of the royal family, Buddhist priests, the Buddha, God, and certain deified elements, such as earth and fire, where it serves as an honorific particle)
វត្ថុ voattʰoʔ 1. thing, object
2. matter, substance
3. wealth, property, place, farm, dwelling
4. reason, basis
ស័ក្ដិសិទ្ធិ sak sət sacred, holy
ថ្ងាស tŋah forehead