Introducing oneself to others — Cultural note


នៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជា ការណែនាំខ្លួនឯងចំពោះមនុស្សទើបតែជួបគ្នាដំបូង ផ្ដើមឡើងដោយពាក្យថា សួស្តី (អាយុប្រហែលគ្នា មិនចាំបាច់លើកដៃសំពះទេ) ពាក្យថា ជម្រាបសួរ (អាយុមើលទៅច្រើនជាង គួរលើកដៃសំពះផងដែរ)។ បន្ទាប់មក ភាគច្រើនណែនាំខ្លួនដោយខ្លីបំផុត គឺគ្រាន់តែប្រាប់ឈ្មោះតែប៉ុណ្ណោះ (ករណីណែនាំខ្លួនទៅកាន់មនុស្សតែម្នាក់ តិចនាក់ ហើយពេលវេលាតិច) ឬក៏បន្ថែមដោយស្រុកកំណើត និងមុខរបរសព្វថ្ងៃ គឺថា ខ្ញុំឈ្មោះ ... ស្រុកកំណើតនៅ ... រាល់ថ្ងៃរៀន/ធ្វើការនៅ ... (ករណីណែនាំខ្លួនទៅកាន់មនុស្សច្រើន គេឲ្យពេលវេលាច្រើនសម្រាប់ណែនាំ)។ គឺថាយើងមិនចាំបាច់ត្រូវរៀបរាប់ព័ត៌មានច្រើនអំពីខ្លួនឯងតាំងពីដំបូងឡើយ គឺរង់ចាំឆ្លើយនឹងសំណួររបស់គូសន្ទនា ដូចជា
ផ្ទះនៅណាដែរ?
អាយុប៉ុន្មានហើយ? (ដើម្បីដឹងថាអាយុបងប្អូន)
ចំណង់ចំណូលចិត្តអីគេ?
ជាដើមចំពោះការណែនាំខ្លួននៅកន្លែងធ្វើការ ភាគច្រើន យើងតែងតែប្រាប់ឈ្មោះផ្នែកដែលខ្លួននៅ បន្ទាប់ពីប្រាប់ឈ្មោះ គឺថា ខ្ញុំឈ្មោះ ... នៅផ្នែក ...។

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ប្រទេស prɑteeh country, nation
កម្ពុជា kampuʔcie Cambodia
ការ kaa 1. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
2. work, occupation
3. business, affair, matter
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
ណែនាំ nae noam 1. to advise, guide, lead
2. ណែនាំ … ឲ្យស្គាល់ = to introduce [someone]
3. ណែនាំខ្លួន(ឯង) = to introduce oneself
ខ្លួនឯង kluən ʔaeŋ 1. oneself
2. personally, on one's own, by oneself
ចំពោះ cɑmpʊəh toward, to, about, as for
មនុស្ស mɔnuh, meaʔnuh human being, person
ទើបតែ təəp tae just
ជួបគ្នា cuəp knie to meet each other
ដំបូង dɑmbouŋ 1. first, first of all, before
2. at first, in the beginning
ផ្ដើម pdaəm to start, to begin
Notes: ជើង ដ
ឡើង laəŋ 1. to go up, ascend
2. (of aircraft) to take off
3. to rise, get up
4. to climb
5. to get on/board (a means of transport)
6. to go upstream
7. to ferment, rise (of dough)
8. to increase
9. up, upwards
10. upstream
11. increasingly
12. on
13. often occurs as a verb complement in various meanings
ដោយ daoy 1. by, with, along
2. (indicator of an adverb) in a ... manner
3. because
ពាក្យ piek word, term, expression, phrase
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
សួស្តី suǝsdǝy greeting equivalent to 'hi!' 'hello!' 'good day!'
Notes: ជើង ត
អាយុ ʔaayuʔ 1. to be ... years old
2. age
ប្រហែល prɑhael 1. about, approximately
2. resembling, similar to, nearly identical
3. almost
4. maybe, probably, it is possible that, perhaps
គ្នា knie 1. together
2. mutually, reciprocally
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
ចាំបាច់ cam bac necessary, essential
លើក lǝǝk 1. to lift, to raise {លើកដៃសំពះ = to raise the hands in a greeting or respectful gesture} {លើករបស់ = to lift something} {លើកទូរស័ព្ទ = to pick up the phone}
2. time, occasion, session {លើកមុន = last time}
ដៃ day arm, hand
សំពះ sɑmpeah to salute by placing both hands together palm to palm in front of the chest with the fingers pointing upward (it is a gesture of respect when meeting someone or when leaving)
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
ជម្រាបសួរ cumriep suǝ 1. hello
2. to say hello
Notes: also written ជំរាបសួរ
មើលទៅ məəl tɨv maybe, perhaps, probably, it seems that
ច្រើន craən 1. much, many, numerous, very much
2. mostly, often
ជាង cieŋ 1. more than
2. marks the comparative degree of an adjective {ល្អជាង = better}
គួរ kuə 1. should, ought to
2. to be worthy of (often marks phrases equivalent to Eng. adjectives in -able / -ible)
3. to be correct, proper, suitable, fitting
ផងដែរ pʰɑɑŋ dae also, too, as well
បន្ទាប់មក bɑntoap mɔɔk next, then, afterwards, later
ភាគច្រើន pʰiek craən 1. mostly
2. majority
ខ្លួន kluən 1. body, figure, person, self
2. reflexive pronoun: myself, yourself, himself etc.
ខ្លី kləy short (in length)
បំផុត bɑmpʰot 1. to be the most..., the very..., extreme, extraordinary
2. to terminate, to end, to finish, to conclude
3. final, last
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
គ្រាន់តែ kroan tae just, only, only just
ប្រាប់ prap 1. to tell, say, state, inform, report
2. to explain
3. to point out
ឈ្មោះ cmʊəh 1. name
2. to be named/called
តែប៉ុណ្ណោះ tae ponnɑh only, only that much
ករណី kaʔraʔnəy case, cause, instance, matter, story
ទៅកាន់ tɨv kan to, toward
តែ tae 1. but, however
2. only, just
3. tea
ម្នាក់ mneak 1. one person (contraction of មួយនាក់)
2. alone
តិច təc 1. to be few (in number), small (in size or extent), less
2. a little bit, somewhat
3. phrase-final: makes a request more polite {ចង់ពឹងឲ្យជួយលើកអីវ៉ាន់តិច = Can you please help me carrying these things?} {ខ្ញុំសុំលអាវនេះតិចបានអេ៎? = Can I try on this shirt here, please?}
នាក់ neak clf. for people
ហើយ haǝy 1. indicates completed action or state 'already'
2. and, afterwards, next, then, after that
ពេលវេលា peel veelie time
ឬក៏ rɨɨ kɑɑ or (on the other hand)
បន្ថែម bɑntʰaem 1. to add (to), increase
2. to supplement, replenish
3. additionally, in addition to
ស្រុកកំណើត srok kɑmnaət birthplace, home town
និង nɨŋ and
មុខរបរ muk rɔbɑɑ profession, job, occupation
សព្វថ្ងៃ sɑp tŋay 1. every day, each day
2. now, at present, these days
ខ្ញុំ kɲom I
រាល់ថ្ងៃ roal tŋay every day
រៀន riən to study, to learn, to practice
ធ្វើការ tvəə kaa to work
គេ kee 1. he, she
2. one, someone
3. other(s)
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
សម្រាប់ sɑmrap 1. for
2. used for, used to (make or do something)
យើង yəəŋ 1. we
2. I (familiar)
3. in final position used to refer to 'our Cambodian ...' {ទុរេនកំពតយើងមែន? = Kampot durian (from our country, Cambodia), right?}
ត្រូវ trəv 1. must, have to
2. to be correct, right, proper, exact, accurate
3. to concern, have to do with, to agree/jibe with, coincide with
4. to be affected with/by, to suffer, undergo (ត្រូវ + CLAUSE marks a passive-like construction in which the subject of the clause introduced by ត្រូវ is translated as the agent in the passive construction)
រៀបរាប់ riəp roap to describe, narrate, relate (a story)
ព័ត៌មាន poadɑɑmien news, information {សួរព័ត៌មាន = to make an enquiry, to ask for information}
Notes: also written ពត៌មាន
អំពី ʔɑmpii 1. about, concerning, relative to
2. from, out of {អំពីថ្ងៃនេះទៅ = from this day on}
តាំងពី taŋ pii since, from, starting with
ឡើយ laəy 1. at all, absolutely
2. generally used with the negative particles កុំ, គ្មាន, ពុំ, មិន, ឥត, to express the idea of incompleted action, existence or progressing action
រង់ចាំ rʊəŋ cam to wait (for, until)
ឆ្លើយ claəy to reply, to answer
នឹង nɨŋ with, by (means of), (attached) to
សំណួរ sɑmnuə question
របស់ rɔbɑh 1. object, thing, belonging, property
2. of, belonging to
គូសន្ទនា kuu sɑnteaʔnie persons conversing with one another, interlocutor
ដូចជា douc cie such as, like, as though, to seem as though, for instance
ផ្ទះ pteah house, home, residence, building
ណា naa 1. which, any
2. where, somewhere, anywhere
ដែរ dae 1. also, too, likewise, in the same way
2. indeed, quite, rather
3. marks a polite, gentler, less abrupt statement: all the same, even so, nevertheless
ប៉ុន្មាន ponmaan 1. how much, how many
2. (in an affirmative context) some, several, a few, a certain number
3. (in a negative or indefinite context) (not) many, to any (great) extent
ដើម្បី daəmbəy in order to, for, to, toward, reserved for
ដឹង dəŋ 1. to know, to be aware of, to be familiar with
2. [colloquial] can be used in the affirmative or, as an answer to a question, to mean ‘no’ {ដឹងហើយ = ok!} {ឯងដឹងថាគាត់ទៅណាអត់? ដឹង! = Do you know where he went to? No, I don’t.}
បង bɑɑŋ 1. elder sibling
2. you (addressing an acquaintance, friend, elder sibling, or husband), or I (if elder than the addressee)
3. you (politely addressing a stranger who's not too much younger than oneself)
ប្អូន pʔoun 1. younger sibling (the opposite of បង)
2. form used to address a younger sibling or younger friend
ចំណង់ចំណូលចិត្ត cɑmnɑŋ cɑmnoul cət desire, wish
Notes: ជើង ត
អីគេ ʔəy kee what {អីគេ? = Pardon?/What?} {អីគេហ្នឹង? = What is this?} {ជប់លៀងអីគេ វុទ្ធី? = What party, វុទ្ធី?}
Notes: colloquial
ជាដើម cie daəm 1. for example, for instance
2. as above, as listed (or given) above
3. first of all, first and foremost
កន្លែងធ្វើការ kɑnlaeŋ tvəə kaa office, workplace
តែងតែ taeŋ tae usually, regularly, constantly, always, continually
ផ្នែក pnaek part, portion, section, division, department
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of/to/in/at which/whom
3. the fact/reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever {អត់ដែលដឹងសោះ = I’ve never known this!}
បន្ទាប់ពី bɑntoap pii after, next