Greetings and leave takings 2 — Cultural note


ការលើកដៃសំពះនិងនិយាយថា ជម្រាបសួរ/ជម្រាបលា លោកអ៊ំ/អ្នកមីង/បង គឺជាការបង្ហាញនូវការគោរពនៅពេលជួបលាមនុស្សចាស់ជាង ប៉ុន្តែមនុស្សចាស់ភាគច្រើនក៏នឹងលើកដៃសំពះមកវិញព្រមគ្នាដែរ នៅពេលទទួលការសំពះពីយើង

ចំពោះពេលជួបមិត្តភក្តិមនុស្សក្មេងជាងបន្តិច ការញញឹមនិងពាក្យថា សួស្តី គឺគ្រប់គ្រាន់ហើយយើងអាចហៅមនុស្សក្មេងជាងបន្តិចថា អូន (ទាំងប្រុសទាំងស្រី) ហើយហៅក្មេងតូចថា អាអូន

នៅពេលទិញអីវ៉ាន់នៅផ្សារ មិនបាច់និយាយថា ជម្រាបសួរ សួស្តីទេអ្នកលក់ខ្លះក៏ជម្រាបសួរ ឬក៏សួស្តីទៅអតិថិជន តែខ្លះក៏មិននិយាយដែរពេលចង់ទិញអ្វីមួយ យើងគ្រាន់តែហៅអ្នកលក់ថា បង មីង ឬក៏អូន ទៅតាមអាយុប្រហែលរបស់គាត់ ហើយសួរតម្លៃទៅអ្នកលក់តែម្ដងពេលទិញនិងបង់ប្រាក់ហើយ ភាគច្រើនទាំងអ្នកលក់ទាំងអតិថិជននិយាយថា អរគុណ

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
ការ kaa 1. work, occupation
2. business, affair, matter
3. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
លើក lǝǝk 1. to lift, to raise {លើកដៃសំពះ = to raise the hands in a greeting or respectful gesture} {លើករបស់ = to lift something} {លើកទូរស័ព្ទ = to pick up the phone}
2. time, occasion, session {លើកមុន = last time}
ដៃ day arm, hand
សំពះ sɑmpeah to salute by placing both hands together palm to palm in front of the chest with the fingers pointing upward (it is a gesture of respect when meeting someone or when leaving)
និង nɨŋ and
និយាយ niʔyiey to speak, say, talk, relate, tell, to narrate, to talk over, discuss
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
ជម្រាបសួរ cumriep suǝ 1. hello
2. to say hello
Notes: also written ជំរាបសួរ
ជម្រាបលា cumriep lie 1. goodbye
2. to say goodbye
Notes: also written ជំរាបលា
លោក look 1. you (used in addressing adult males who are of approximately equal rank with the speaker and Buddhist monks)
2. he (used in referring to adult males who are of approximately equal rank with the speaker and Buddhist monks)
3. monk, man (who is respected)
4. sir, mister (commonly used before a title or given name)
5. world, sphere of existence
6. universe
អ៊ំ ʔum, ʔom 1. elder sibling of one's parent
2. 2nd person pronoun (to uncle or aunt older than one's parent or to older non-relatives in one's parents' generation)
អ្នក neak 1. you (to equals of both sexes)
2. person, one who... (used as an agentive particle to create nouns from predicatives)
មីង miiŋ 1. aunt (younger sister of either parent)
2. 2nd or 3rd person pronoun for a younger aunt or a step-mother
3. 2nd person pronoun for an older woman one does not know (one who is younger or appears to be younger than one's parents)
បង bɑɑŋ 1. elder sibling
2. you (addressing an acquaintance, friend, elder sibling, or husband), or I (if elder than the addressee)
3. you (politely addressing a stranger who's not too much younger than oneself)
គឺជា kɨɨ cie 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
Notes: equivalent to គឺ
បង្ហាញ bɑŋhaaɲ 1. to show, exhibit, reveal, to indicate
2. to demonstrate, to teach
3. to introduce (someone to someone)
នូវ nɨv 1. marker of the direct object, especially in written, literary language
2. with, and, and also, along with, by means of
គោរព koorup 1. to respect, obey, honor
2. respect
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ពេល peel 1. time
2. moment, instant, period of time
ជួប cuəp to meet (especially intentionally)
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
លា lie to say goodbye, to quit, to resign, to leave, to depart
មនុស្ស mɔnuh, meaʔnuh human being, person
ចាស់ cah 1. old, mature
2. (of colors) to be intense, dark, (of seasonings) to be strong, excessive, (of fruits) to be almost ripe
ជាង cieŋ 1. more than
2. marks the comparative degree of an adjective {ល្អជាង = better}
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
ភាគច្រើន pʰiek craən 1. mostly
2. majority
ក៏ kɑɑ marker of sequential or consecutive action: also, so, then, therefore, accordingly
នឹង nɨŋ future tense marker: will, about to
មក mɔɔk 1. to come (toward the speaker in space or time)
2. often used as a particle indicating that the action began at some point in the past and continued up to the present
វិញ vɨɲ again, back, instead
ព្រមគ្នា prɔɔm knie 1. together, in unison, at the same time
2. completely, fully
ដែរ dae 1. also, too, likewise, in the same way
2. indeed, quite, rather
3. marks a polite, gentler, less abrupt statement: all the same, even so, nevertheless
ទទួល tɔtuəl 1. to receive, to take
2. to accept, to agree
3. to meet (e.g., at an airport or station)
ពី pii from, since, of, about, at
យើង yəəŋ 1. we
2. I (familiar)
3. in final position used to refer to 'our Cambodian ...' {ទុរេនកំពតយើងមែន? = Kampot durian (from our country, Cambodia), right?}
ចំពោះ cɑmpʊəh toward, to, about, as for
មិត្តភក្តិ mɨt pʰeaʔ friend
Notes: ជើង ត (twice)
ក្មេង kmejŋ 1. child, young person
2. young
បន្តិច bɑntəc 1. a little, a little bit, in small amounts, few
2. rather, slightly, just barely
3. in a little while
Notes: ជើង ត
ញញឹម ɲɔɲɨm to smile
ពាក្យ piek word, term, expression, phrase
សួស្តី suǝsdǝy greeting equivalent to 'hi!' 'hello!' 'good day!'
Notes: ជើង ត
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
គ្រប់គ្រាន់ krup kroan sufficient, enough, adequate
ហើយ haǝy 1. indicates completed action or state 'already'
2. and, afterwards, next, then, after that
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
ហៅ hav 1. to call, name
2. to order (e.g. in a restaurant), specif. to stop a vehicle
3. to send for, summon
4. to invite (guests)
អូន ʔoun 1. I (younger brother, younger sister, sweetheart or wife - about themselves)
2. you (intimate or familiar address form for younger sibling, for one's wife or girl friend, or for a close friend who is younger)
3. you (politely addressing a stranger who's younger than oneself)
ទាំង teaŋ 1. all, both {ទាំងពីរ = both} {ទាំង ... ទាំង ... = both ... and ...}
2. entirely, completely
3. adverb marker equivalent to ដោយ
ប្រុស proh man, male
ស្រី srəy woman, female
តូច touc, tuuc 1. small, little, tiny
2. minor
អា ʔaa used preceding names: it is commonly used in addressing close friends, persons regarded as inferiors, or young boys, it can also be used before the name of something with which one is annoyed, when preceding the name of a girl, it conveys a notion of endearment
ទិញ tɨɲ to buy
អីវ៉ាន់ ʔəyvan objects, things, merchandise, goods, baggage
ផ្សារ psaa market, bazaar, fair
មិនបាច់ mɨn bac to not have to, not need to, to be not necessary {មិនបាច់ទេ = [that’s/it’s] not necessary}
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
អ្នកលក់ neak lʊək seller
ខ្លះ klah some (serves as a plural marker with ណា​​ and អ្វី)
ឬក៏ rɨɨ kɑɑ or (on the other hand)
ទៅ tɨv 1. to go (away from the speaker in space or time), to go to / towards, go on, continue, advance, go away
2. towards
3. from now on, from then on (often used as a particle indicating that the action began at some point in the past or present and continued on into the future or that the action is directed away from the speaker)
4. imperative particle, go ahead and ...! {ញ៉ាំទៅ = Go ahead and eat/drink!}
អតិថិជន ʔaʔteʔtʰeʔ cɔɔn customer, client
Notes: formal
តែ tae 1. but, however
2. only, just
3. tea
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
ចង់ cɑŋ 1. to want, wish, desire
2. to need
អ្វីមួយ ʔvǝymuǝy 1. what?
2. any, some, a certain one
3. anything, nothing, something
គ្រាន់តែ kroan tae just, only, only just
ទៅតាម tɨv taam 1. by, according to, through {គេគិតតម្លៃទៅតាមគីឡូ = they’re charging by the kilo}
2. to pursue, go after, go along with
3. to send for
4. to retrieve
អាយុ ʔaayuʔ 1. to be ... years old
2. age
ប្រហែល prɑhael 1. about, approximately
2. resembling, similar to, nearly identical
3. almost
4. maybe, probably, it is possible that, perhaps
របស់ rɔbɑh 1. object, thing, belonging, property
2. of, belonging to
គាត់ koat he, she
សួរ suə 1. to ask, question, enquire
2. to visit, come to see
តម្លៃ tɑmlay 1. price
2. value
តែម្ដង tae mdɑɑŋ 1. immediately, at once, right away
2. all of a sudden
3. generally, in general
បង់ bɑŋ 1. to pay, pay out, pay a tax or fee
2. to put, put in/on
3. to put in, deposit (e.g., money)
4. to spread/sprinkle (a granular substance such as salt) on
5. to cast/throw out (a net)
6. to discard, abandon
7. to lose
8. to waste, squander, do (something) in vain
9. to eliminate
10. bank
11. band (of a radio)
12. clf. for pinches of something
13. magazine, ammunition clip
14. clf. for boxes of cartridges
ប្រាក់ prak 1. money
2. silver
អរគុណ ʔɑɑ kun 1. thank you
2. to thank, to be grateful