Greetings and leave takings 1 — Cultural note


ពេលនិយាយថា ជម្រាបសួរ ជម្រាបលា ជនជាតិខ្មែរតែងលើកដៃសំពះបង្ហាញពីការគោរពប៉ុន្តែ នៅពេលនិយាយថា សួស្តី គឺមិនលើកដៃសំពះទេនៅពេលជួបគ្នាដំបូង គឺមិនដឹងពីអាយុរបស់គ្នាទេដូច្នេះ មនុស្សភាគច្រើនតែងតែហៅគ្នាថា បង ជាការគួរសមក្រៅពីពាក្យថា បង យើងអាចហៅទៅតាមអាយុ ដូចជា មីង ពូ អ៊ំ យាយ តា ។ល។ ជំនួសឲ្យពាក្យថា ឯង យើងអាចហៅឈ្មោះគេតែម្ដងជនជាតិខ្មែរខ្លះនៅតាមខេត្ត ប្រើពាក្យថា គាត់ ជំនួសឲ្យពាក្យថា ឯង

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
ពេល peel 1. time
2. moment, instant, period of time
និយាយ niʔyiey to speak, say, talk, relate, tell, to narrate, to talk over, discuss
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
ជម្រាបសួរ cumriep suǝ 1. hello
2. to say hello
Notes: also written ជំរាបសួរ
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
ជម្រាបលា cumriep lie 1. goodbye
2. to say goodbye
Notes: also written ជំរាបលា
ជនជាតិ cɔɔn ciet 1. citizen, people {ជនជាតិខ្មែរ = Khmer people}
2. nationality
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
តែង taeŋ 1. constantly, always, used to {អតិថិជនតែងគិតថា […] = customers always think that […]}
2. to arrange, decorate, beautify
3. to compose, create, draft, write {តែងសេចក្ដី = essay}
4. to set up, erect, establish
លើក lǝǝk 1. to lift, to raise {លើកដៃសំពះ = to raise the hands in a greeting or respectful gesture} {លើករបស់ = to lift something} {លើកទូរស័ព្ទ = to pick up the phone}
2. time, occasion, session {លើកមុន = last time}
ដៃ day arm, hand
សំពះ sɑmpeah to salute by placing both hands together palm to palm in front of the chest with the fingers pointing upward (it is a gesture of respect when meeting someone or when leaving)
បង្ហាញ bɑŋhaaɲ 1. to show, exhibit, reveal, to indicate
2. to demonstrate, to teach
3. to introduce (someone to someone)
ពី pii from, since, of, about, at
ការ kaa 1. work, occupation
2. business, affair, matter
3. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
គោរព koorup 1. to respect, obey, honor
2. respect
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
សួស្តី suǝsdǝy greeting equivalent to 'hi!' 'hello!' 'good day!'
Notes: ជើង ត
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
ជួបគ្នា cuəp knie to meet each other
ដំបូង dɑmbouŋ 1. first, first of all, before
2. at first, in the beginning
ដឹង dəŋ 1. to know, to be aware of, to be familiar with
2. [colloquial] can be used in the affirmative or, as an answer to a question, to mean ‘no’ {ដឹងហើយ = ok!} {ឯងដឹងថាគាត់ទៅណាអត់? ដឹង! = Do you know where he went to? No, I don’t.}
អាយុ ʔaayuʔ 1. to be ... years old
2. age
របស់ rɔbɑh 1. object, thing, belonging, property
2. of, belonging to
គ្នា knie 1. together
2. mutually, reciprocally
ដូច្នេះ doucneh 1. so, thus, therefore
2. like this
មនុស្ស mɔnuh, meaʔnuh human being, person
ភាគច្រើន pʰiek craən 1. mostly
2. majority
តែងតែ taeŋ tae usually, regularly, constantly, always, continually
ហៅ hav 1. to call, name
2. to order (e.g. in a restaurant), specif. to stop a vehicle
3. to send for, summon
4. to invite (guests)
បង bɑɑŋ 1. elder sibling
2. you (addressing an acquaintance, friend, elder sibling, or husband), or I (if elder than the addressee)
3. you (politely addressing a stranger who's not too much younger than oneself)
ជា cie 1. to be (equal to), to be as
2. to be well, in good health, recovered
3. to be effective (of medicines)
គួរសម kuə sɑɑm 1. polite, acceptable, appropriate
2. reasonable, moderate {មានច្រើនគួរសមដែរ = it has a reasonably/relatively many}
ក្រៅពី krav pii besides, in addition to
ពាក្យ piek word, term, expression, phrase
យើង yəəŋ 1. we
2. I (familiar)
3. in final position used to refer to 'our Cambodian ...' {ទុរេនកំពតយើងមែន? = Kampot durian (from our country, Cambodia), right?}
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
ទៅតាម tɨv taam 1. by, according to, through {គេគិតតម្លៃទៅតាមគីឡូ = they’re charging by the kilo}
2. to pursue, go after, go along with
3. to send for
4. to retrieve
ដូចជា douc cie such as, like, as though, to seem as though, for instance
មីង miiŋ 1. aunt (younger sister of either parent)
2. 2nd or 3rd person pronoun for a younger aunt or a step-mother
3. 2nd person pronoun for an older woman one does not know (one who is younger or appears to be younger than one's parents)
ពូ puu 1. uncle (younger brother of either parent)
2. respectful term of address to older men
អ៊ំ ʔum, ʔom 1. elder sibling of one's parent
2. 2nd person pronoun (to uncle or aunt older than one's parent or to older non-relatives in one's parents' generation)
យាយ yiey 1. grandmother
2. old lady
3. polite term used to address an old woman
តា taa 1. grandfather
2. respectful term for addressing an old man
3. ancestor (often used in the names of spirits)
4. spoken form of តែ {តាម៉ាភ្លែតអេ = តែមួយភ្លែតទេ = [it's] just a few minutes!}
។ល។ laʔ etc., and so forth, and so on
ជំនួស cumnuəh 1. instead of, in place of
2. to replace
3. replacement
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
ឯង ʔaeŋ 1. you
2. self, oneself, by oneself
3. used after personal pronouns or names to make the address more polite
4. surely, obviously
ឈ្មោះ cmʊəh 1. name
2. to be named/called
គេ kee 1. he, she
2. one, someone
3. other(s)
តែម្ដង tae mdɑɑŋ 1. immediately, at once, right away
2. all of a sudden
3. generally, in general
ខ្លះ klah some (serves as a plural marker with ណា​​ and អ្វី)
តាម taam 1. to follow, to agree, to go along {ដើរតាមភ្ញៀវគ្រប់ជំហាន = to follow the customer’s every step}
2. according to, in accordance with, following, along, by, through {តាមអាយុ = according to age} {តាមសម្រួល = take it easy/take your time}
3. on, in, along {ជិះម៉ូតូតាមផ្លូវ = to ride a motorbike on the street} {ជិះតាមផ្លូវតូចៗ = to drive on small roads} {នៅតាមខេត្ត = in/throughout the province} {លក់នៅតាមផ្សារ = to sell in the market}
ខេត្ត kʰaet 1. province
2. region, territory
Notes: ជើង ត; irregular pronunciation: ខែត
ប្រើ praə to use
គាត់ koat he, she