Expressing thanks 1 — Cultural note


នៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជា កម្រមានការប្រារព្ធពិធីខួបកំណើតណាស់ប្រជាជនមួយចំនួនធំមិនទាំងចងចាំថ្ងៃកំណើតរបស់ខ្លួនឯងផងប៉ុន្តែ សម័យបច្ចុប្បន្ន ថ្ងៃខួបកំណើតត្រូវបានគេចាត់ទុកថាជាថ្ងៃពិសេស និងត្រូវបានប្រារព្ធកាន់តែច្រើនឡើងដូច្នេះ ម្នាក់ត្រូវចងចាំនូវថ្ងៃកំណើតរបស់អ្នកដទៃកាន់តែច្រើនឡើងជនជាតិខ្មែរប្រារព្ធពិធីខួបកំណើត ដោយការជួបជុំមិត្តភក្តិញ៉ាំអាហារពេលល្ងាចនិងមាននំខេក អាចមានការជូនកាដូ ឬក៏ចូលលុយគ្នាទិញនំខេករួចធ្វើឲ្យមានការភ្ញាក់ផ្អើលនៅកន្លែងធ្វើការ (មិនចាំបាច់មានកាដូទេ)។ យោបល់មួយចំនួនលើកឡើងថា នៅថ្ងៃខួបកំណើតរបស់ខ្លួន ជាជាងការទទួលយកអំណោយនិងសប្បាយរីករាយជាមួយមិត្តភក្តិ សាមីខ្លួនគួរតែសម្ដែងនូវសេចក្ដីដឹងគុណ និងជូនអំណោយដល់មាតាដែលគាត់បានខិតខំបង្កើតរូបខ្លួននៅថ្ងៃនេះកាលពីប៉ុន្មានឆ្នាំមុន

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ប្រទេស prɑteeh country, nation
កម្ពុជា kampuʔcie Cambodia
កម្រ kɑmrɑɑ 1. to be poor
2. rare, scarce
3. poverty
Notes: also written កំរ
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
ការ kaa 1. work, occupation
2. business, affair, matter
3. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
ប្រារព្ធ praarup 1. to initiate, to start to organize, to prepare, to hold (a party)
2. to think of, to wonder about
ពិធី piʔtʰii 1. ceremony, celebration, ritual
2. occasion
3. process, method, way
4. traditions, customary rules
ខួបកំណើត kʰuəp kɑmnaət birthday
ណាស់ nah very, very much
ប្រជាជន prɑciecʊən the people, the population
មួយ muəy 1. one {មួយៗ = one by one}
2. one person/myself {សុំចេញមួយ = Please let me [go] out!} {សុំទៅមួយ = Please give way [for me one person]!} {សុំចុះមួយ = Please let me [one person] get off [the bus]!}
ចំនួន cɑmnuən amount, number, quantity
ធំ tʰom to be big, tall, vast, important
Notes: irregular pronunciation
មិនទាំង mɨn teaŋ + verb: (did/does) not even + verb
ចងចាំ cɑɑŋ cam to remember, retain, hold on to, be nostalgic about
ថ្ងៃកំណើត tŋay kɑmnaət birthday
របស់ rɔbɑh 1. object, thing, belonging, property
2. of, belonging to
ខ្លួនឯង kluən ʔaeŋ 1. oneself
2. personally, on one's own, by oneself
ផង pʰɑɑŋ 1. also, too, as well
2. marker indicating entreaty or a polite request: please ..., would you ...
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
សម័យ saʔmay 1. era, period, time, season, occasion
2. phase (of the moon)
3. condition, state
4. doctrine, tradition, style, fashion
5. sign, mark
6. cause
7. function
បច្ចុប្បន្ន paccopbɑn the present (time), now, in the present time
ថ្ងៃ tŋay 1. day, daytime
2. sun
ត្រូវ trəv 1. must, have to
2. to be correct, right, proper, exact, accurate
3. to concern, have to do with, to agree/jibe with, coincide with
4. to be affected with/by, to suffer, undergo (ត្រូវ + CLAUSE marks a passive-like construction in which the subject of the clause introduced by ត្រូវ is translated as the agent in the passive construction)
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
គេ kee 1. he, she
2. one, someone
3. other(s)
ចាត់ទុក cat tuk to consider
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
ជា cie 1. to be (equal to), to be as
2. to be well, in good health, recovered
3. to be effective (of medicines)
ពិសេស piʔseh special, exceptional, different
និង nɨŋ and
កាន់តែ kan tae more and more, further, becoming more and more, increasingly, continually
ច្រើន craən 1. much, many, numerous, very much
2. mostly, often
ឡើង laəŋ 1. to go up, ascend
2. (of aircraft) to take off
3. to rise, get up
4. to climb
5. to get on/board (a means of transport)
6. to go upstream
7. to ferment, rise (of dough)
8. to increase
9. up, upwards
10. upstream
11. increasingly
12. on
13. often occurs as a verb complement in various meanings
ដូច្នេះ doucneh 1. so, thus, therefore
2. like this
ម្នាក់ mneak 1. one person (contraction of មួយនាក់)
2. alone
នូវ nɨv 1. marker of the direct object, especially in written, literary language
2. with, and, and also, along with, by means of
អ្នកដទៃ neak dɑtey strangers, others, other people
ជនជាតិ cɔɔn ciet 1. citizen, people {ជនជាតិខ្មែរ = Khmer people}
2. nationality
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
ដោយ daoy 1. by, with, along
2. (indicator of an adverb) in a ... manner
3. because
ជួបជុំ cuəp cum to meet, hold a meeting, to gather together, assemble, (re)unite
មិត្តភក្តិ mɨt pʰeaʔ friend
Notes: ជើង ត (twice)
ញ៉ាំ ɲam to eat, to drink, to consume
Notes: informal, of oneself, addressing children or close friends but not elders
អាហារ ʔaahaa food, meal
ពេលល្ងាច peel lŋiec evening, in the evening
នំខេក num kʰejk cake
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
ជូន cuun 1. to give, present, offer
2. to accompany, escort, give someone a lift or ride
3. to, for (formal or polite variant of ឲ្យ​)
កាដូ kaadou present, gift
ឬក៏ rɨɨ kɑɑ or (on the other hand)
ចូលលុយគ្នា cool luy knie to pool/contribute money
ទិញ tɨɲ to buy
រួច ruəc 1. to finish, end, achieve, complete
2. indicates the possibility of completing the action of the main verb, to be able
3. already, then, after that
ធ្វើឲ្យ tvəə ʔaoy 1. to cause, make (someone) do (something)
2. to do (something) for (someone) (often used to form causative compounds)
ភ្ញាក់ផ្អើល pɲeak pʔaəl 1. to be startled, surprised, excited, alarmed
2. to panic
កន្លែងធ្វើការ kɑnlaeŋ tvəə kaa office, workplace
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
ចាំបាច់ cam bac necessary, essential
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
យោបល់ yoobɑl 1. opinion, point of view
2. idea, suggestion
លើក lǝǝk 1. to lift, to raise {លើកដៃសំពះ = to raise the hands in a greeting or respectful gesture} {លើករបស់ = to lift something} {លើកទូរស័ព្ទ = to pick up the phone}
2. time, occasion, session {លើកមុន = last time}
ខ្លួន kluən 1. body, figure, person, self
2. reflexive pronoun: myself, yourself, himself etc.
ជាជាង cie cieŋ instead of, rather than
ទទួលយក tɔtuəl yɔɔk 1. to accept
2. to take, to receive
អំណោយ ʔɑmnaoy gift, present, donation, contribution
សប្បាយ sapbaay 1. happy, pleasant, fun
2. kind, beneficial, healthy
រីករាយ riik riey to be happy, glad, enthusiastic
ជាមួយ cie muəy with
សាមីខ្លួន saamǝy kluən main person (e.g., the bride or groom in the wedding), interested party, person concerned, the subject (e.g., of an investigation)
គួរតែ kuə tae ought to, should, it's right to
សម្ដែង sɑmdaəŋ 1. to express (an idea)
2. to show, display, demonstrate
3. to come into view
4. to act, perform, portray on the stage
5. to declare, proclaim
6. to publish, promulgate
Notes: root: ស្តែង; ជើង ដ; also written សំដែង
សេចក្ដី səckdəy 1. affair, matter, case
2. subject, meaning, concept
3. reason, cause
4. nominalizing particle, forms abstract nouns from verbs and adjectives
5. these derivative nouns generally have the meaning of: the condition or state of … {សេចក្តីល្អ = goodness}
Notes: ជើង ដ
ដឹងគុណ dəŋ kun to be grateful
ដល់ dɑl 1. to reach, to attain, to arrive at
2. to, toward, up to, as far as, at, until
មាតា miedaa mother
Notes: formal, literal, royal
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of / to / in / at which / whom
3. the fact / reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever
គាត់ koat he, she
ខិតខំ kʰət kʰɑm to make more strenuous efforts, try harder, to work harder
បង្កើត bɑŋkaət 1. to create, to produce, to give birth to
2. to be related to (by blood)
រូប ruup 1. image, picture, body, figure, shape, portrait, statue
2. clf. for respected people, monks, pictures, statues
ថ្ងៃនេះ tŋay nih today
កាល kaal 1. time, moment, period of time
2. era, epoch
3. during, at the time when
ពី pii from, since, of, about, at
ប៉ុន្មាន ponmaan 1. how much, how many
2. (in an affirmative context) some, several, a few, a certain number
3. (in a negative or indefinite context) (not) many, to any (great) extent
ឆ្នាំ cnam year
មុន mun 1. previous(ly), former(ly) {ខែមុន = last month}
2. first, before {ញ៉ាំមុនចុះ = Go ahead and eat first!}