Expressing pain — Cultural note


ជនជាតិខ្មែរមួយចំនួនជឿថា នៅពេលមុតដៃ ត្រូវយកសំបុកពីងពាងមកបិទនៅនឹងមុខរបួស ទើបអាចឃាត់ឈាមបានលឿនប៉ុន្តែ បើតាមវិជ្ជាពេទ្យ សំបុកពីងពាងកខ្វក់ណាស់ អាចធ្វើឲ្យឆ្លងមេរោគចូលទៅក្នុងមុខរបួសអញ្ចឹងហើយ មិនគួរយកសំបុកពីងពាងមកបិទនៅនឹងមុខរបួសមុតដែលកំពុងចេញឈាមនោះទេគឺត្រូវលាងនឹងទឹកឲ្យស្អាតសិន រួចហើយប្រើអាល់កុលដើម្បីសម្លាប់មេរោគ

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
ជនជាតិ cɔɔn ciet 1. citizen, people {ជនជាតិខ្មែរ = Khmer people}
2. nationality
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
មួយ muəy 1. one {មួយៗ = one by one}
2. one person/myself {សុំចេញមួយ = Please let me [go] out!} {សុំទៅមួយ = Please give way [for me one person]!} {សុំចុះមួយ = Please let me [one person] get off [the bus]!}
ចំនួន cɑmnuən amount, number, quantity
ជឿ cɨə 1. to believe, to trust (in)
2. to buy on credit
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ពេល peel 1. time
2. moment, instant, period of time
មុត mut 1. to be sharp
2. to cut, pierce, stab
3. to be cut, stabbed
4. hard, tough, firm, brave
ដៃ day arm, hand
ត្រូវ trəv 1. must, have to
2. to be correct, right, proper, exact, accurate
3. to concern, have to do with, to agree/jibe with, coincide with
4. to be affected with/by, to suffer, undergo (ត្រូវ + CLAUSE marks a passive-like construction in which the subject of the clause introduced by ត្រូវ is translated as the agent in the passive construction)
យក yɔɔk 1. to take, bring, get, accept, hold
2. when ordering: I’ll take, I’ll have {យកបបរគ្រឿងសាច់ជ្រូកម៉ាចាន = I’ll have a bowl of pork porridge}
សំបុក sɑmbok 1. nest (of birds, mice, ants etc.), lair, den
2. deposit (of minerals)
ពីងពាង piiŋ pieŋ spider
មក mɔɔk 1. to come (toward the speaker in space or time)
2. to come to/towards (often used as a final particle indicating that the action began at some point in the past and continued up to the present)
3. (from then) on, (from that time) forth
4. to, toward
បិទ bət 1. to shut, close (e.g., a door, a meeting), to turn off (e.g., an electrical switch), to cease (working), to block (e.g., a road)
2. to cover, seal, to attach (to), fasten (on), to place close to, to apply over, smear on, to glue, paste
នឹង nɨŋ with, by (means of), (attached) to
មុខរបួស muk rɔbuəh wound
ទើប təəp 1. then, only then, next
2. so, consequently {យប់មិញជួបមិត្តចាស់ទើបខ្ញុំញ៉ាំស្រា = yesterday, I met old friends, so I had drinks [with them]}
3. just {ទើបមកដល់ម្សិលមិញ = [they’ve] just arrived yesterday}
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
ឃាត់ kʰoat 1. to forbid, stop (from doing), prevent, restrain
2. to detain
3. to ban
4. to control
ឈាម cʰiem blood
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
លឿន lɨən fast, quick
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
បើ baə 1. if, may be
2. although
តាម taam 1. to follow, to agree, to go along {ដើរតាមភ្ញៀវគ្រប់ជំហាន = to follow the customer’s every step}
2. according to, in accordance with, following, along, by, through {តាមអាយុ = according to age} {តាមសម្រួល = take it easy/take your time}
3. on, in, along {ជិះម៉ូតូតាមផ្លូវ = to ride a motorbike on the street} {ជិះតាមផ្លូវតូចៗ = to drive on small roads} {នៅតាមខេត្ត = in/throughout the province} {លក់នៅតាមផ្សារ = to sell in the market}
វិជ្ជាពេទ្យ vɨccie pɛɛt medicine, medical science
Notes: irregular pronunciation: ពែត
កខ្វក់ kɑkvɑk to be dirty, polluted, stained
ណាស់ nah very, very much
ធ្វើឲ្យ tvəə ʔaoy 1. to cause, make (someone) do (something)
2. to do (something) for (someone) (often used to form causative compounds)
ឆ្លង clɑɑŋ 1. to cross, move across/through (by land, water, or air)
2. to spread (of a disease)
3. to communicate, transmit
4. to copy
5. to intersect
6. to be contaminated, contagious, infected
7. to contract (a disease)
8. to adopt, pick up (e.g., a bad habit)
9. to celebrate
10. to dedicate, inaugurate
11. to survive (an accident or disaster)
មេរោគ mee rook micro-organism, germ, virus, microbe
ចូល coul 1. to enter, go in, penetrate
2. to approach
3. to reach
4. to begin, set in
5. may indicate the adverbial meaning of ‘inwardly’ or ‘forwardly’ directed movement
6. to enter into, subscribe to, contribute to
7. to take in (as revenue)
8. to mate (of animals)
9. to go into a trance (of a medium)
10. to possess (as a spirit possesses a medium)
11. to agree with
ទៅ tɨv 1. to go (away from the speaker in space or time), to go to / towards, go on, continue, advance, go away
2. towards
3. from now on, from then on (often used as a particle indicating that the action began at some point in the past or present and continued on into the future or that the action is directed away from the speaker)
4. imperative particle, go ahead and ...! {ញ៉ាំទៅ = Go ahead and eat/drink!}
ក្នុង knoŋ 1. in, inside
2. during + (time word)
អញ្ចឹង ʔɑɲcəŋ 1. in that case, so, then, therefore
2. like this / that
3. this / that much
ហើយ haǝy 1. indicates completed action or state 'already'
2. and, afterwards, next, then, after that
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
គួរ kuə 1. should, ought to
2. to be worthy of (often marks phrases equivalent to Eng. adjectives in -able / -ible)
3. to be correct, proper, suitable, fitting
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of/to/in/at which/whom
3. the fact/reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever {អត់ដែលដឹងសោះ = I’ve never known this!}
កំពុង kɑmpuŋ to be in the process of (doing something)
ចេញឈាម cəɲ cʰiem to bleed
នោះ nuh 1. that, those (often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something distant in time or space)
2. then
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
លាង lieŋ 1. to wash, to clean (with a liquid)
2. to purify, to clear
ទឹក tɨk 1. water, juice, liquid
2. round (e.g., of a boxing match)
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
ស្អាត sʔaat 1. to be clean, nice, neat
2. pure, chaste
3. smart (of someone's appearance)
4. nice-looking, beautiful
សិន sən 1. [phrase-final] for now, for the time being, for a moment
2. [phrase-final] first
Notes: polite final hortatory particle
រួច ruəc 1. to finish, end, achieve, complete
2. indicates the possibility of completing the action of the main verb, to be able
3. already, then, after that
ប្រើ praə to use
អាល់កុល ʔal ko alcohol
ដើម្បី daəmbəy in order to, for, to, toward, reserved for
សម្លាប់ sɑmlap 1. to kill
2. to tan (leather)
3. to abandon completely, to suppress, to eliminate
4. to destroy
5. to feign
Notes: root: ស្លាប់; also written សំឡាប់