Expressing joy at someone’s success — Cultural note


ជនជាតិខ្មែរមានលក្ខណៈអៀនច្រើន មិនសូវនិយាយពាក្យថា អរគុណ សុំទោស ចំពោះពាក្យសរសើរ អំពើល្អរបស់អ្នកដទៃទេប៉ុន្តែ ឱកាសធ្វើការរួមគ្នាក្នុងសង្គមធ្វើឲ្យយុវជនខ្មែរសព្វថ្ងៃចាប់ផ្ដើមប្រើពាក្យថា អរគុណ ញឹកញាប់ជាងមុនប៉ុន្តែ ការប្រើពាក្យថាអរគុណ សុំទោស នៅក្នុងក្រុមគ្រួសារនៅតែមិនបង្ហាញភាពស្និទ្ធស្នាលភាគច្រើនជនជាតិខ្មែរបង្ហាញសេចក្ដីអបអរសាទរដោយប្រើពាក្យសរសើរ ដូចជា ពូកែ ឡូយ ឆ្លាត ជាដើម ព្រមទាំងបបួលជួបជុំគ្នាញ៉ាំអាហារ (ជប់លៀង)។ អ្នកដែលទទួលពាក្យសរសើរអាចញញឹមអស់សំណើច ឬក៏បដិសេធ ឬក៏និយាយពាក្យថាអរគុណ (ចំពោះអ្នកដទៃមិនមែនសមាជិកគ្រួសារ)។ វិធីដែលល្អបំផុតក្នុងការបង្ហាញក្ដីរីករាយចំពោះភាពជោគជ័យរបស់នរណាម្នាក់ គឺការសួរសំណួរឲ្យបានច្រើនអំពីថា តើគេធ្វើដូចម្ដេចទើបទទួលបានជោគជ័យ ហើយប្រើពាក្យសរសើរឲ្យបានញឹកញាប់នៅក្នុងការសន្ទនានោះ

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
ជនជាតិ cɔɔn ciet 1. citizen, people {ជនជាតិខ្មែរ = Khmer people}
2. nationality
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
លក្ខណៈ leakkʰaʔnaʔ 1. attribute, (physical) characteristic, distinctive feature
2. character, nature, quality
3. appearance, shape, form
4. condition, criterion, qualification
5. meaning
6. section (of a law text)
អៀន ʔiǝn 1. to be shy, bashful, sheepish
2. to be embarrassed
3. to be ashamed
ច្រើន craən 1. much, many, numerous, very much
2. mostly, often
មិនសូវ mɨn səv not so much, rather not
និយាយ niʔyiey to speak, say, talk, relate, tell, to narrate, to talk over, discuss
ពាក្យ piek word, term, expression, phrase
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
អរគុណ ʔɑɑ kun 1. thank you
2. to thank, to be grateful
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
សុំទោស som tooh 1. excuse me, pardon me
2. I'm sorry
ចំពោះ cɑmpʊəh toward, to, about, as for
សរសើរ sɑɑ saə 1. to congratulate
2. to compliment, praise, eulogize, admire
អំពើល្អ ʔɑmpǝǝ lʔɑɑ good deed
របស់ rɔbɑh 1. object, thing, belonging, property
2. of, belonging to
អ្នកដទៃ neak dɑtey strangers, others, other people
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
ឱកាស ʔaokaah 1. occasion, chance, opportunity, time
2. free time, permission, agreeing
3. cause, situation
4. polite word used to begin a conversation or to ask someone for something: please, may I have your attention
ធ្វើការ tvəə kaa to work
រួម ruəm 1. to combine
2. to join together, connect, unite, gather
3. to concentrate
4. to reduce, shrink
5. to be concentrated, compact, solid
6. to be united, joined, connected
7. to take part (in)
8. to share
9. to be common, joint, communal, collective
គ្នា knie 1. together
2. mutually, reciprocally
ក្នុង knoŋ 1. in, inside
2. during + (time word)
សង្គម sɑŋkum society, community
ធ្វើឲ្យ tvəə ʔaoy 1. to cause, make (someone) do (something)
2. to do (something) for (someone) (often used to form causative compounds)
យុវជន yuʔveaʔcʊən youth, young people
សព្វថ្ងៃ sɑp tŋay 1. every day, each day
2. now, at present, these days
ចាប់ផ្ដើម cap pdaəm to begin, start
Notes: ជើង ដ
ប្រើ praə to use
ញឹកញាប់ ɲɨk ɲoap 1. repeatedly, many times
2. often, frequently, on many occasions
ជាង cieŋ 1. more than
2. marks the comparative degree of an adjective {ល្អជាង = better}
មុន mun 1. previous(ly), former(ly) {ខែមុន = last month}
2. first, before {ញ៉ាំមុនចុះ = Go ahead and eat first!}
ការ kaa 1. commonly occurs as a nominalizing particle deriving abstract nouns or noun phrases from verbs or verb phrases
2. work, occupation
3. business, affair, matter
4. to protect, defend, prevent
5. to marry
6. marriage
7. wedding
8. interest (e.g., on a loan)
9. profit
10. usury
11. to wind (into a skein/bobbin/reel)
12. to spin (silk)
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ក្រុមគ្រួសារ krom kruəsaa family, family members
នៅតែ nɨv tae 1. still, as before
2. to be left, remain
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
បង្ហាញ bɑŋhaaɲ 1. to show, exhibit, reveal, to indicate
2. to demonstrate, to teach
3. to introduce (someone to someone)
ភាព pʰiep state, condition, shape, manner
ស្និទ្ធស្នាល snǝt snaal (of a friendship) close, intimate
ភាគច្រើន pʰiek craən 1. mostly
2. majority
សេចក្ដី səckdəy 1. affair, matter, case
2. subject, meaning, concept
3. reason, cause
4. nominalizing particle, forms abstract nouns from verbs and adjectives
5. these derivative nouns generally have the meaning of: the condition or state of … {សេចក្តីល្អ = goodness}
Notes: ជើង ដ
អបអរសាទរ ʔɑɑp ʔɑɑ saatɔɔ 1. to be enthusiastic and satisfied about/for someone
2. to express enthusiasm, to acclaim
ដោយ daoy 1. by, with, along
2. (indicator of an adverb) in a ... manner
3. because
ដូចជា douc cie such as, like, as though, to seem as though, for instance
ពូកែ puukae clever, skilfull, good at (doing something)
ឡូយ looy 1. cool
2. arrogant, proud
ឆ្លាត claat clever, shrewd, intelligent
ជាដើម cie daəm 1. for example, for instance
2. as above, as listed (or given) above
3. first of all, first and foremost
ព្រមទាំង prɔɔm teaŋ together with, in addition to, and ... as well, and also
បបួល bɑbuəl 1. to invite/appeal/persuade to
2. to ask
3. to arrange (with)
ជួបជុំ cuəp cum to meet, hold a meeting, to gather together, assemble, (re)unite
ញ៉ាំ ɲam to eat, to drink, to consume
Notes: informal, of oneself, addressing children or close friends but not elders
អាហារ ʔaahaa food, meal
ជប់លៀង cup liǝŋ 1. party
2. to hold a party
អ្នក neak 1. you (to equals of both sexes)
2. person, one who... (used as an agentive particle to create nouns from predicatives)
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of/to/in/at which/whom
3. the fact/reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever {អត់ដែលដឹងសោះ = I’ve never known this!}
ទទួល tɔtuəl 1. to receive, to take
2. to accept, to agree
3. to meet (e.g., at an airport or station)
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
ញញឹម ɲɔɲɨm to smile
អស់សំណើច ʔɑh sɑmnaəc 1. to burst out laughing
2. to find something ridiculous
ឬក៏ rɨɨ kɑɑ or (on the other hand)
បដិសេធ paʔdeʔsaet 1. to deny
2. to reject, to refuse
3. to cancel, to abolish, to eliminate
មិនមែន mɨn mɛɛn no, not, is not
សមាជិក saʔmaacɨk member (of an organization)
គ្រួសារ kruəsaa family
វិធី viʔtʰii 1. method, style, arrangement
2. ceremony, ritual
ល្អ lʔɑɑ 1. good, nice, beautiful, pretty
2. correct, proper
បំផុត bɑmpʰot 1. to be the most..., the very..., extreme, extraordinary
2. to terminate, to end, to finish, to conclude
3. final, last
ក្ដី kdəy 1. affair, case, matter
2. argument, debate, complaint
3. court action
4. trial, legal proceeding, lawsuit, litigation
5. I (used by Buddhist monks)
Notes: ជើង ដ
រីករាយ riik riey to be happy, glad, enthusiastic
ជោគជ័យ cook cey 1. victory, success
2. to be successful
នរណាម្នាក់ nɔɔnaa mneak somebody, anybody
គឺ kɨɨ 1. to be (equal to)
2. as follows, namely
សួរ suə 1. to ask, question, enquire
2. to visit, come to see
សំណួរ sɑmnuə question
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
អំពី ʔɑmpii 1. about, concerning, relative to
2. from, out of {អំពីថ្ងៃនេះទៅ = from this day on}
តើ taə 1. indicating an indirect question, it may often be translated as 'if' or 'whether'
2. phrase-final: used for emphasis
គេ kee 1. he, she
2. one, someone
3. other(s)
ធ្វើ tvəə to do, to make, to work, to prepare, to cultivate (a field)
ដូចម្ដេច douc mdəc 1. how, why
2. however, in whatever way, whatever
3. what, what kind, like what
4. as, thus
ទើប təəp 1. then, only then, next
2. so, consequently {យប់មិញជួបមិត្តចាស់ទើបខ្ញុំញ៉ាំស្រា = yesterday, I met old friends, so I had drinks [with them]}
3. just {ទើបមកដល់ម្សិលមិញ = [they’ve] just arrived yesterday}
ហើយ haǝy 1. indicates completed action or state 'already'
2. and, afterwards, next, then, after that
សន្ទនា sɑnteaʔnie 1. to converse, to discuss
2. conversation, discussion
នោះ nuh 1. that, those (often serves simply to emphasize something already referred to or something distant in time or space)
2. then