Explaining how something works — Cultural note


តើអ្នកចូលចិត្តឲ្យគេបង្រៀនធ្វើអ្វីមួយថ្មីដែលអ្នកមិនធ្លាប់ចេះដែរទេ? នៅខ្មែរ មានអ្នកឆ្លើយថា ចង់ឲ្យគេបង្រៀន ព្រោះយើងចេះកាន់តែច្រើនឡើង អាចធ្វើអ្វីដោយខ្លួនឯងបាន ប៉ុន្តែ អ្នកនឹងមានអ្នកឆ្លើយថាចេះច្រើន គេប្រើច្រើន”។ ឧទាហរណ៍ បើអ្នកចេះបើកឡាន អ្នកនឹងត្រូវគេឲ្យធ្វើតៃកុងកាន់តែញឹក បើអ្នកចេះជួសជុលកុំព្យូទ័រ នឹងមានមនុស្សកាន់តែច្រើន ដែលហៅអ្នកឲ្យមើលកុំព្យូទ័រដែលខូច

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
តើ taə 1. indicating an indirect question, it may often be translated as 'if' or 'whether'
2. phrase-final: used for emphasis
អ្នក neak 1. you (to equals of both sexes)
2. person, one who... (used as an agentive particle to create nouns from predicatives)
ចូលចិត្ត coul cət to like, to prefer
Notes: ជើង ត
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
គេ kee 1. he, she
2. one, someone
3. other(s)
បង្រៀន bɑŋriən to teach, to instruct, to train
ធ្វើ tvəə to do, to make, to work, to prepare, to cultivate (a field)
អ្វីមួយ ʔvǝymuǝy 1. what?
2. any, some, a certain one
3. anything, nothing, something
ថ្មី tməy new
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of/to/in/at which/whom
3. the fact/reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever {អត់ដែលដឹងសោះ = I’ve never known this!}
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
ធ្លាប់ tloap 1. to become accustomed to, familiar with, to be used to
2. to have the habit/custom of
3. marker of continuous action in the past
ចេះ ceh to know, to know how to, to be able to
ដែរ dae 1. also, too, likewise, in the same way
2. indeed, quite, rather
3. marks a polite, gentler, less abrupt statement: all the same, even so, nevertheless
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
ឆ្លើយ claəy to reply, to answer
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
ចង់ cɑŋ 1. to want, wish, desire
2. to need
ព្រោះ prʊəh because (of), since
យើង yəəŋ 1. we
2. I (familiar)
3. in final position used to refer to 'our Cambodian ...' {ទុរេនកំពតយើងមែន? = Kampot durian (from our country, Cambodia), right?}
កាន់តែ kan tae more and more, further, becoming more and more, increasingly, continually
ច្រើន craən 1. much, many, numerous, very much
2. mostly, often
ឡើង laəŋ 1. to go up, ascend
2. (of aircraft) to take off
3. to rise, get up
4. to climb
5. to get on/board (a means of transport)
6. to go upstream
7. to ferment, rise (of dough)
8. to increase
9. up, upwards
10. upstream
11. increasingly
12. on
13. often occurs as a verb complement in various meanings
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
អ្វី ʔvəy 1. what?
2. anything, something, nothing
ដោយ daoy 1. by, with, along
2. (indicator of an adverb) in a ... manner
3. because
ខ្លួនឯង kluən ʔaeŋ 1. oneself
2. personally, on one's own, by oneself
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
នឹង nɨŋ future tense marker: will, about to
lɨɨ 1. to hear
2. independent vowel representing the Sanskrit vowel លឭៃ (words spelled with ឮ may also be spelled with លឺ)
ប្រើ praə to use
ឧទាហរណ៍ ʔuʔtiehɑɑ 1. example
2. for example
បើ baə 1. if, may be
2. although
បើក baək 1. to open {បើកប្រអប់ = to open a box} {បើកហាង = to open a shop}
2. to turn on (e.g., a light, faucet, radio) {បើកទឹកម៉ាស៊ីន = to turn on the water/faucet}
3. of the sun: to shine
4. to drive (an automobile), generally to operate a vehicle which is powered by an engine
ឡាន laan car, motor vehicle
ត្រូវ trəv 1. must, have to
2. to be correct, right, proper, exact, accurate
3. to concern, have to do with, to agree/jibe with, coincide with
4. to be affected with/by, to suffer, undergo (ត្រូវ + CLAUSE marks a passive-like construction in which the subject of the clause introduced by ត្រូវ is translated as the agent in the passive construction)
តៃកុង tay koŋ 1. taxi driver, chauffeur
2. helmsman, pilot
ញឹក ɲɨk 1. often, frequently, always, continually, unceasingly
2. to be close together, dense, thick, compact
3. narrow
ជួសជុល cuəh cul to repair, to fix, to renovate
កុំព្យូទ័រ kompyuutoa computer
មនុស្ស mɔnuh, meaʔnuh human being, person
ហៅ hav 1. to call, name
2. to order (e.g. in a restaurant), specif. to stop a vehicle
3. to send for, summon
4. to invite (guests)
មើល məəl 1. to look at, to watch, to watch for, to observe
2. particle: come on, give it a try
3. let me see!
4. phrase-final: softens a command or request {ជួយបង្ហាញតិចមើល = Please show me!}
ខូច kʰouc 1. broken, damaged, ruined
2. bad, nasty