Asking for repetition — Cultural note


នៅពេលយើងចង់ឲ្យអ្នកដែលមានអាយុច្រើនឋានៈខ្ពស់ជាងនិយាយម្ដងទៀត យើងមិនអាចប្រើពាក្យថាហាអីគេ?” បានទេយើងអាចសួរគាត់ដោយផ្ដើមពីបាទ/ចាស?” រួចសួរថាមានប្រសាសន៍ថាម៉េច ...?” មាននិយាយថាម៉េច ...?”។ ជំនួស ... ដោយពាក្យហៅដូចជា បង លោកគ្រូ លោកអ៊ំ ។ល។ ប៉ុន្តែ សម្រាប់ក្រុមគ្រួសារដូចជាឪពុកម្ដាយ បងប្រុស បងស្រី ដែលជាមនុស្សជិតស្និទ្ធ ជនជាតិខ្មែរប្រើភាសាដូចពេលប្រើជាមួយមិត្តភក្តិអីចឹងដែរ

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KhmerPronunciationEnglish/Notes
នៅ nɨv 1. in, at
2. to be located at, to live in or at, to reside, to stay, to be in
3. still, yet (pre-verbal marker of a durative or continuative aspect, as a final particle in the tag question ហើយឬនៅ it means 'yet' and as a reply to a question of this kind, it means 'not yet') {ញ៉ាំអីហើយនៅ? = Have you eaten already?}
ពេល peel 1. time
2. moment, instant, period of time
យើង yəəŋ 1. we
2. I (familiar)
3. in final position used to refer to 'our Cambodian ...' {ទុរេនកំពតយើងមែន? = Kampot durian (from our country, Cambodia), right?}
ចង់ cɑŋ 1. to want, wish, desire
2. to need
ឲ្យ ʔaoy 1. to give
2. to let, to allow
3. for, to, in order to, so as to {ចង់ឲ្យខ្ញុំកុម្ម៉ង់អីញ៉ាំឲ្យហើយអត់? = Do you want me to order something for you already?}
4. in a... manner (forms adverbial phrases from predicatives)
Notes: also written អោយ, ឱ្យ
អ្នក neak 1. you (to equals of both sexes)
2. person, one who... (used as an agentive particle to create nouns from predicatives)
ដែល dael 1. who, whom, which, where, when
2. of / to / in / at which / whom
3. the fact / reason that
4. ever, happened to, having done at least once, having been to, already, always, had occasion to, have ever
មាន mien 1. to have, possess, own
2. to exist, there is, there are
3. to be rich, own property
4. indicates the accomplishment of an action, to happen to, to have occasion to
Notes: in spoken Khmer, negated មាន (មិនមាន or គ្មាន) can be contracted into មាន, e.g., មានអ្នកណាចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there's nobody who wants to meet you’ — contrast this with the affirmative: មានគេចង់ជួបឯង = ‘there’s somebody who wants to meet you’
អាយុ ʔaayuʔ 1. to be ... years old
2. age
ច្រើន craən 1. much, many, numerous, very much
2. mostly, often
rɨɨ 1. or
2. phrase-final interrogative particle {មិនមែនឬ = Isn't it true?}
ឋានៈ tʰaanaʔ 1. grade, level, position, standing, status
2. duty
3. reason, motive, cause
ខ្ពស់ kpʊəh high, tall
ជាង cieŋ 1. more than
2. marks the comparative degree of an adjective {ល្អជាង = better}
និយាយ niʔyiey to speak, say, talk, relate, tell, to narrate, to talk over, discuss
ម្ដងទៀត mdɑɑŋ tiət once more, again
មិន mɨn negative particle not, non- (usually requires the final particle ទេ)
អាច ʔaac 1. to be able (to do something), to be capable (of doing something)
2. to be possible
ប្រើ praə to use
ពាក្យ piek word, term, expression, phrase
ថា tʰaa 1. to say, tell, pronounce
2. that (introduces a question or indirect discourse)
ហា haa as a question: pardon?, what?
Notes: colloquial
អីគេ ʔəy kee what {អីគេ? = Pardon?/What?} {អីគេហ្នឹង? = What is this?} {ជប់លៀងអីគេ វុទ្ធី? = What party, វុទ្ធី?}
Notes: colloquial
បាន baan 1. to have completed/done something
2. to intend to complete something
3. marker of completed action
4. to get, obtain, acquire, to achieve, have been able to, to get/have the opportunity to do something
5. to get someone or something to do something (often translated by the English passive in this sense)
6. to be able to
7. not ... until, then and only then
8. to pass to someone through inheritance
9. to be OK, fine, all right
10. [spoken language] however, though, in contrast {ម្សិលមិញបានក្ដៅខ្លាំង = yesterday, however, it was very hot}
ទេ tee 1. particle: negative particle occurring in phrase final position especially after មិន, ពុំ, etc.
2. interrogative particle occurring in phrase final position, often in the combination ឬទេ
3. neutral/positive particle to add emphasis {ខ្ញុំសុខសប្បាយទេ = I'm fine!}
សួរ suə 1. to ask, question, enquire
2. to visit, come to see
គាត់ koat he, she
ដោយ daoy 1. by, with, along
2. (indicator of an adverb) in a ... manner
3. because
ផ្ដើម pdaəm to start, to begin
Notes: ជើង ដ
ពី pii from, since, of, about, at
បាទ baat male politeness particle, also used to answer in the affirmative, or agree to or acknowledge a statement
ចាស caah 1. yes (used by women)
2. often merely a polite word of acknowledgment, especially at the beginning of a sentence
រួច ruəc 1. to finish, end, achieve, complete
2. indicates the possibility of completing the action of the main verb, to be able
3. already, then, after that
មានប្រសាសន៍ mien prɑsaah to speak, to say
Notes: formal
ម៉េច məc what (following a verb of saying), why, in what way/manner, how {ម៉េចហើយ?/ម៉េចអី? = What's up?} {[…] ម៉េចទៅ? = In what way […]?} {ថាម៉េចចៅ? = What are you saying, grand-daughter?} {បងចង់បានម៉ូតម៉េច? = What kind of design/fashion do you like?}
ជំនួស cumnuəh 1. instead of, in place of
2. to replace
3. replacement
ហៅ hav 1. to call, name
2. to order (e.g. in a restaurant), specif. to stop a vehicle
3. to send for, summon
4. to invite (guests)
ដូចជា douc cie such as, like, as though, to seem as though, for instance
បង bɑɑŋ 1. elder sibling
2. you (addressing an acquaintance, friend, elder sibling, or husband), or I (if elder than the addressee)
3. you (politely addressing a stranger who's not too much younger than oneself)
លោកគ្រូ look kruu male teacher
លោក look 1. you (used in addressing adult males who are of approximately equal rank with the speaker and Buddhist monks)
2. he (used in referring to adult males who are of approximately equal rank with the speaker and Buddhist monks)
3. monk, man (who is respected)
4. sir, mister (commonly used before a title or given name)
5. world, sphere of existence
6. universe
អ៊ំ ʔum, ʔom 1. elder sibling of one's parent
2. 2nd person pronoun (to uncle or aunt older than one's parent or to older non-relatives in one's parents' generation)
។ល។ laʔ etc., and so forth, and so on
ប៉ុន្តែ pontae but, however
Notes: ជើង ត; root: តែ
សម្រាប់ sɑmrap 1. for
2. used for, used to (make or do something)
ក្រុមគ្រួសារ krom kruəsaa family, family members
ឪពុកម្ដាយ ʔǝv puk mdaay 1. parents
2. father and mother
បងប្រុស bɑɑŋ proh elder brother
ស្រី srəy woman, female
ជា cie 1. to be (equal to), to be as
2. to be well, in good health, recovered
3. to be effective (of medicines)
មនុស្ស mɔnuh, meaʔnuh human being, person
ជិតស្និទ្ធ cɨt snǝt to be close, intimate
ជនជាតិ cɔɔn ciet 1. citizen, people {ជនជាតិខ្មែរ = Khmer people}
2. nationality
ខ្មែរ kmae Khmer, Cambodian
ភាសា pʰiesaa 1. language
2. speech, words
ដូច douc alike, similar, like, as
ជាមួយ cie muəy with
មិត្តភក្តិ mɨt pʰeaʔ friend
Notes: ជើង ត (twice)
អីចឹង ʔəycəŋ 1. like this, like that, in that way, then {គិតម៉េចទៅអីចឹង? = What are you going to do next?} {ធ្វើមុខអីអីចឹង? = Why are you making such a face?}
2. really?
Notes: variant: អ៊ីចឹង
ដែរ dae 1. also, too, likewise, in the same way
2. indeed, quite, rather
3. marks a polite, gentler, less abrupt statement: all the same, even so, nevertheless